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摘要:Thesis statement: Monitoring of ambient air quality parameters and actions to deal with traffic emissions in Jakarta is in an urgent manner for its increasing level of air pollution. I. Introduction 1.1 The influence of air pollution Air is very impo......

Thesis statement: Monitoring of ambient air quality parameters and actions to deal with traffic emissions in Jakarta is in an urgent manner for its increasing level of air pollution.
I. Introduction
1.1 The influence of air pollution
Air is very important to people’s life for no one can stop breathing for 20mins or even longer. Human depends on air to survive and develop while the nature also need the air to run its ecological functions. Thus clean air is necessary for human’s healthy environment and for maintaining the biodiversity(Cahyandito, 2001). When there is something appearing in the air that naturally do not exist and cause a worsen air condition and damages to human and other living things, we call that air pollution. It may be some toxic chemical substances or solid particles that can even react with one another. It comes from sources of dust, gases, and smoke, and is generated mainly by human activities but also naturally(Cahyandito, 2001).
Air pollution will cause serious problems and damages both for human and nature. It aggravates respiratory problems and leads to an increase in sickness absenteeism and premature mortality, even interact with the body’s immune system(Deboer, 1998). It may change the air substances and cause climate changes such as greenhouse gases and lead. So a concern for air pollution can not be ignored.
论文陈述:由于雅加达的空气污染日益严重,监测环境空气质量参数和采取行动处理交通排放已成为当务之急。
一、引言
1.1空气污染的影响
空气对人们的生活非常重要,因为没有人能停止呼吸20分钟甚至更长时间。人类依靠空气生存和发展,自然也需要空气来运行其生态功能。因此,清洁的空气对于人类健康的环境和维持生物多样性是必要的(Cahyandito, 2001)。当空气中出现了一些本来不存在的东西,导致空气状况恶化,对人类和其他生物造成损害时,我们称之为空气污染。它可能是一些有毒的化学物质或固体颗粒,甚至可以相互反应。它来自于灰尘、气体和烟雾,主要由人类活动产生,但也有自然产生(Cahyandito, 2001)。
空气污染会对人类和自然造成严重的问题和破坏。它加重呼吸系统问题,导致生病缺勤和过早死亡的增加,甚至与人体免疫系统相互作用(Deboer, 1998年)。它可能改变空气中的物质,导致气候变化,如温室气体和铅。所以对空气污染的关注是不容忽视的。
1.2 Introduction to Jakarta
Jakarta, the capital of the Republic of Indonesia, has a dramatic population growth in the 20th century, growing from 29 million at the turn of the century to about 125 million today (Energy information administration,1999) and by 2015 Jakarta is expected to be the fifth largest city in the world with a population of 21.2 million.
As it is the country’s center of government, finance, commerce and education, Jakarta’s industries include textiles, chemicals and electronic devices, and 17% of the nation’s industrial production occurs there (Wri, 2000). But its rapid economic growth has had its costs--vehicles and industry are now a major source of environmental pollution. Thus, like many of the world’s megacities, Jakarta now faces some of the world’s worst urban environmental problems from choking air pollution to contaminated and insufficient water supplies (Wri, 2000).
1.2雅加达介绍
雅加达,印度尼西亚共和国的首都,有一个戏剧性的人口增长在20世纪,在世纪之交的增长从2900万年到今天的大约1.25亿(能源信息管理局,1999)预计,到2015年雅加达是世界上第五大城市,人口2120万。
由于它是该国的政府、金融、商业和教育中心,雅加达的工业包括纺织、化工和电子设备,全国17%的工业生产都发生在那里(Wri, 2000年)。但中国经济的快速增长也有其代价——汽车和工业现在是环境污染的主要来源。因此,像世界上许多特大城市一样,雅加达现在面临着一些世界上最严重的城市环境问题,从令人窒息的空气污染到受污染和供水不足(Wri, 2000)。
1.3 Air quality in Jakarta
1.3.1 Air pollution status
Because of Jakarta’s rapid population growth and economic development, the burning of fuels and the increasing numbers of cars and factories, the air environment status is now going down. It greatly affect the health of people and the damage to constructions and economic growth of Jakarta. Vehicle emissions are the most important source of pollutants (44% of particulates, 89% of hydrocarbons, 73% of nitrogen oxides, and 100% of lead) (Cahyandito, 2001)
1.3雅加达的空气质量
1.3.1大气污染状况
由于雅加达人口的快速增长和经济的发展,燃料的燃烧和越来越多的汽车和工厂,空气环境状况正在下降。它极大地影响了雅加达人民的健康和对建筑和经济增长的破坏。汽车尾气是最重要的污染物来源(44%的微粒、89%的碳氢化合物、73%的氮氧化物和100%的铅)(Cahyandito, 2001)
1.3.2 Main pollutants of air pollution
The main pollutants of Jakarta’s air pollution include:
Carbon monoxide, which is let off by vehicles’ petrol engines and industrial combustion; sulfur dioxide, which is produced when coal and oil are burnt or when mineral are “roasted” to remove the sulfur; nitrogen dioxide, which are emitted by both motor vehicles and stationary combustion sources; and nitric oxide, which originates in chemical and nitration industries and occurs with the photochemical oxidant process(Who, 1972); particles in the air come from a number of sources, including motor vehicles, industrial processes and wood burning. Secondary formation of particles (formation from gaseous emissions) can also contribute significantly to particle levels(Holper and Noonan, 2000); photochemical smog, which is the combined effects of a number of air pollutants and are worse than individual effects; ozone, formed from nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons in sunny condition which are released by motor vehicles and industry(Cahyandito, 2001).
The point is that, all these pollutants will cause great damages to human health. Jakarta’s air pollution is associated with high level of respiratory disease (Cahyandito, 2001). Research has shown that the air pollution can cause higher level of respiratory illness on children and adults while increase a family’s economic costs(Zulkarnain, 2003).
1.3.2大气污染的主要污染物
雅加达空气污染的主要污染物包括:
汽车的汽油发动机和工业燃烧释放的一氧化碳;二氧化硫,当煤和石油燃烧或矿物被“烘烤”以去除硫时产生;汽车和固定燃烧源所排放的二氧化氮;以及产生于化学和硝化工业并在光化学氧化剂过程中产生的一氧化氮(Who, 1972);空气中的颗粒来自许多来源,包括机动车辆、工业过程和木材燃烧。粒子的二次形成(气体排放形成)也会对粒子水平产生显著影响(Holper和Noonan, 2000年);光化学烟雾,是若干空气污染物的综合影响,比个别影响更严重;臭氧,由氮氧化物和碳氢化合物在阳光条件下由汽车和工业释放(Cahyandito, 2001)。
重点是,所有这些污染物都会对人类健康造成极大的损害。雅加达的空气污染与高水平的呼吸道疾病有关(Cahyandito, 2001)。研究表明,空气污染可导致儿童和成人患上更高程度的呼吸道疾病,同时增加家庭的经济成本(Zulkarnain, 2003年)。
II. Actions for Jakarta to deal with air pollution
2.1 For government
Jakarta may use part of BAPEDAL(Environmental Impact Management Agency of Indonesia) and PCI(Pollution Control Implementation) Project to show the extent of the vehicles, industry and other human activities’ contribution to air pollution, which can draw people’s attention to air pollution, and help to establish control programs aimed at reducing pollution problems (Holper 2000). Meanwhile, making some policies and law for industries to restrict their pollutants’ emission and encouraging a use of less toxic fuel and private cars but taking public transportation to reduce energy uses are all very efficient measures. For example ,the “Blue Sky Program” is beneficial for the city(BAPEDAL, 1999).
2雅加达处理空气污染的行动
2.1政府
雅加达可能使用的一部分BAPEDAL(印度尼西亚)的环境影响管理机构和PCI(污染控制实现)项目显示车辆的程度,工业和其他人类活动对空气污染的贡献,可以吸引人们的注意空气污染,和帮助建立控制计划旨在减少污染问题(2000年帮助)。与此同时,为工业制定一些政策和法律来限制其污染物的排放,鼓励使用低毒性燃料和私家车,但采取公共交通来减少能源的使用都是非常有效的措施。例如,“蓝天计划”对城市是有益的(BAPEDAL, 1999)。
2.2 For people
Personally, a less use of fossil fuels will do the air many good since air pollution is caused by emission of traffic and industry. A green lifestyle is encouraged for people to live more environmental-friendly and health. People should concern more about the way they life and care much about the earth by doing many small things in normal life, such as reuse and recycle of materials, more use of public transportation and so on. Another program is that the “1 Million Trees Campaign” which is aimed at planting more trees,  shrubs or grass to help absorb the air pollutants and is proved to be crowned with success(Kompas, 1997; Cahyandito, 2001).
2.3 Monitoring of ambient air quality parameters
Among air pollutants emitted by mobile sources in Jakarta are tetra ethyl lead (Pb) and carbon monoxide, both of which have potential adverse systemic health effects. These effects can be monitored practically and specifically. Therefore they can be utilised as indicators of the public health effects of air pollution in urban areas(Cahyandito, 2001). Besides these two indicators, other pollutant in the air can also be monitored as a indicator for pollution. Through that way, figures will show to people how serious the air condition is and motivate people to take part in protecting the air environment and concern more about the nature.
2.2对于人
就我个人而言,少使用化石燃料对空气有好处,因为空气污染是由交通和工业排放造成的。提倡绿色生活方式,让人们生活得更环保、更健康。人们应该更多的关注他们的生活方式,关心更多的地球通过做很多小事在日常生活中,如再利用和回收材料,更多的使用公共交通工具等等。另一个方案是“100万棵树运动”,其目的是种植更多的树、灌木或草,以帮助吸收空气污染物,并已证明取得了成功(Kompas, 1997年;Cahyandito, 2001)。
2.3环境空气质量参数监测
在雅加达流动污染源排放的空气污染物中有四乙基铅(Pb)和一氧化碳,这两种物质对全身健康都有潜在的不利影响。这些影响可以实际和具体地监测。因此,它们可以被用作城市地区空气污染对公众健康影响的指标(Cahyandito, 2001)。除了这两个指标,空气中的其他污染物也可以监测作为污染的指标。通过这种方式,数字将向人们展示空气污染的严重程度,并激励人们参与到保护空气环境中来,更多地关注自然。
III. Conclusion
Air pollution is a big problem in Jakarta province. The pollution is due to increased human activities, population growth, the increasing number of industries, and transportation. To reach a balance between economic growth  and the health of people, there is much to do to lower the effects of air pollution on the society. Besides government’s policies and encouragement to more green progress and people’s concern about the air environment, monitoring of ambient air quality parameters can also do good jobs on that. Further research needs to be done to get more results and measures for relief the undesired outcome of air pollution in Jakarta.
3结论
空气污染是雅加达省的一个大问题。污染是由于人类活动的增加,人口的增长,工业的增加和交通运输。要在经济增长和人民健康之间取得平衡,降低空气污染对社会的影响还有很多工作要做。除了政府鼓励绿色发展的政策和民众对空气环境的关注,环境空气质量参数的监测也可以在这方面做得很好。需要进行进一步的研究,以获得更多的结果和措施,以减轻雅加达空气污染带来的不良后果。
IV. reference
CAHYANDITO, M. Air pollution in Jakarta, Indonesia. Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg, Germany, 2001.
DEBOER M. Facing the Air Pollution Agenda for the 21st Century. In: SCHNEIDER, T. Air Pollution in the 21st Century: Priority Issues and Policy, Elsevier Science B. V., The Netherlands, p. 4-5.1998
EBERLEIN, B. Indonesien: Reiseführer mit Landeskunde, Verlag Haupka & Co., Bad Soden, Germany, 1996.
ENERGY INFORMATION ADMINISTRATION (EIA). Indonesia: Environmental Issues, US-Energy Information Administration, 1996.
HOLPER, P. Probing Jakarta’s Hazy Days, Green and Gold Magazine.1996
HOLPER, P. and J. NOONAN. Urban and Regional Air Pollution, Atmosphere, Newsletter of CSIRO Atmospheric Research, 2000
KOMPAS (Indonesian Daily Newspaper). Gerakan Sejuta Taman (Million Parks Campaign) – Upaya Mengikis Lingkungan Kumuh, April 27, 1997.
KOMPAS (Indonesian Daily Newspaper). Taman, Kali Bersih dan Udara Segar, June 22, 1997.
KOMPAS (Indonesian Daily Newspaper).  Beberapa Jenis Tanaman Cocok untuk Kurangi Polusi Udara, July 14, 1997.
ZULKARNAIN Duki, SIGIT Sudarmadi, et al. Effect of air pollution on respiratory health in Indonesia and its economic cost. Archives of Environmental Health, Vol. 58(No.3), 2003
IV.参考文献
印度尼西亚雅加达的空气污染。阿尔伯特-路德维格-弗莱堡大学,德国,2001。
DEBOER M.面对21世纪的空气污染议程。参见:《21世纪的空气污染:优先问题和政策》,爱思唯尔科学出版社,荷兰,p. 4-5.1998
印度尼西亚:Reisefuhrer mit Landeskunde, Verlag Haupka & Co., Bad Soden,德国,1996年。
能源信息管理局(EIA)。《印度尼西亚:环境问题》,美国能源信息管理局,1996年。
《探寻雅加达的雾霾天》,《绿色和金色》杂志,1996
HOLPER, P.和J. NOONAN。城市和区域空气污染,大气,CSIRO大气研究通讯,2000
(印度尼西亚日报)。百万公园运动- Upaya Mengikis Lingkungan Kumuh, 1997年4月27日。
(印度尼西亚日报)。Taman, Kali Bersih dan Udara Segar, 1997年6月22日
(印度尼西亚日报)。1997年7月14日,Beberapa Jenis Tanaman Cocok untuk Kurangi Polusi Udara。
ZULKARNAIN Duki, SIGIT Sudarmadi等人。空气污染对印度尼西亚呼吸道健康的影响及其经济代价。环境卫生档案,第58卷(第3号),2003年

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