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摘要:本文是一篇英语论文,本次翻译实践文本全文《发电厂在运行和停运后产生的固体废物》(Solid Waste from the Operation and Decommissioning of Power Plants)由美国能源部发表于 2016年 DOE Information Bridge 网......

本文是一篇英语论文,本次翻译实践文本全文《发电厂在运行和停运后产生的固体废物》(Solid Waste from the Operation and Decommissioning of Power Plants)由美国能源部发表于 2016年 DOE Information Bridge 网站

本文是一篇英语论文,本篇翻译实践报告阐释了翻译转换理论在实践中的适用性。最早提出“翻译转换”这一概念的是西方翻译理论学家卡特福德,他以系统功能语言学为基础,归纳出了不同的翻译转换类型。本翻译实践报告描述了翻译实践任务,并以卡特福德翻译转换理论为理论指导,从四种不同范畴,即语法与词汇的转换,结构转换,类别转换和单位转换,分析了源语与目标语之间的差异与特征,总结了翻译策略与方法,充分体现了翻译转换理论对翻译该类实践材料的指导意义。

Chapter  Ⅰ  Introduction

1.1 Background of the Report
Translation on science and technology is beneficial for the spread and innovation of technological  culture,  contributing  to  the prosperity  of  our  country.  At  present,  with  the progress of science and technology and the awakening  of  human  civilization, people are paying  more  and  more  attention  to  sustainable  development.  While  pursuing  economic benefits, they also pay attention to environmental protection and rational use of energy, so high  efficiency  with  low  consumption  has  become  an  important  goal pursued  in  the process of industrial development. This report on energy-Solid Waste from the Operation and Decommissioning of Powers was on the web DOE Information Bridge, and Chapter Two  Coal  was  selected  to  be  translated.  In  this  chapter,  the operation  of  the  coal-fired power plant, the decommissioning of coal plants, the reuse of the coal plant sites and the related treatment of solid waste are worth learning, which helps to accumulate favorable experiences to develop domestic industry.
The  text  is  from  the  DOE  Information  Bridge,  a  website  that  retrieves  and  receives the  full  text  of  research  and  development reports  from  the  US  Department  of  Energy  on physics, chemistry, materials, biology, environment, and energy. The author completed the translation on her own, aiming to strengthen the author's ability to translate independently and master the relevant professional knowledge.
The translation of this text is quite practical. The development of power plants is not a  challenge  faced  by  a  certain  country  or  a certain  region,  but  a  problem  that  the  whole world  needs  to  face.  This  text  is  mainly  about  the  solid  waste  generated  by  the representative  coal-fired  power  plants  in  the  US  power  plants  during  and  after  the operation, the possible use value of these wastes, and the related regulations affecting the treatment  of  these  materials  and  the  decommissioning  way  of  factories.  These practical problems can be as a reference for learning experiences. 
..........................

1.2 Purpose of the Report
The text of science and technology is very complicated for its professional terms and long and difficult sentences, so in order to ensure the accuracy of the text, the author needs to  express  the  source  text  precisely,  completely  and  concretely  by  finishing  a  good translation text under the guidance of relevant translation theory. The main purpose of the translation report is to provide more information on the energy and the relevant strategies to  the  target  readers  and  encourage  them  to  make  full  use  of  energy  and protect environment by their own efforts.
The DOE Information Bridge is a website that retrieves and receives the full text of reports  in  different  fields  from  the  US  Department of  Energy.  The  text  is  a  report  of science and technology on energy from the DOE Information Bridge, which involves the operation process  of  the  coal-fired  power  plant  in  the  United  States  and  the  treatment process of related resources. In the translation, much knowledge of energy and technology will  be  brought  to  the  readers,  which  will  definitely  raise  people’s  awareness  of environmental protection. When people learn about some energy strategies, they can make their contributions and set a good example in the society, then there are increasingly large number of people playing important roles in the process of environment-protecting.
As a developing country, China is exploring its own path of development. Peace and development are the two major themes of today's world, it is also China's own theme. If we  are  to  follow  the  path  of  sustainable  development,  we  must  learn  experiences  and lessons  from  other  countries  to  develop  and  strengthen  ourselves.  China  has  always attached  importance  to  the  energy conservation  and  environmental  protection,  thus  the useful  strategies  can  be  learned  by  the  government  to  improve  energy efficiency  in  our country. The problems faced by US power plants, such as plant operations and solid waste disposal, may also exist in power plants in China. The translation and research of related reports of the former can be important references for the latter. 
...........................

Chapter  Ⅱ  Theoretical Framework

2.1 J.C. Catford’s Translation Shift Theory
The  famous  British  translation  theorist  John  Cannison  Catford  first  referred  to  the concept  of  translation  shift  in  his  book  A Linguistic  Theory  of  Translation.  The  book’s overview  states  that  when  analyzing  and  describing  the  translation  process,  you must make  full  use  of  the  various  categories  that  have  been  established  in  the  language description.  At  first,  Catford explained the  shift  to  mean  that  “Departures  from  form correspondence in the process of going from the SL to TL” (Lijin, 2015). In the process of translation,  translators  should  be  sure  to  pay  attention  to  the  translation  of  the  language content,  not  to  the  one-to-one correspondence  in  the  language  form,  and  word-for-word translation should be forbidden. Translating the equivalent is not to reproduce the original information in detail, but to pay attention to the accurate communication of semantics. At the  same  time,  the language  system  of  the  source  language  and  the  target  language  are different, and the translator inevitably diverges the form of the original text. Therefore it is necessary to take the form of shift so that the translation is close to the original text and the information is kept to complete to the greatest extent.
Catford’s translation shift theory is based on two levels and four basic categories by Halliday's systemic grammar theory. Based on these two levels and four basic categories, Catford subdivided the translation into two major ones, level shift and category shift.
Level  shift  means  that  primitive  unit  on  one  language  level  has  translating equivalence components of translation language on different language levels, which is the shift  between  grammar  level  and  vocabulary  level.  Chinese  grammar  has  the characteristics of  implicitness.  It  has  no  change  of  morphological  form.  Therefore, different  from  the  word  form  changes  and  morphological changes,  the  temporal  tense  of the words is implicit in the statement, and there is no obvious linguistic sign. This is the opposite  of English  grammar,  and  the  part  of  speech  in  English  can  be  clearly  seen through the change of the form. In English grammar, verbs have tense and aspect changes, and  nouns  have  singular  and  plural  changes,  but  in  Chinese  grammar,  tenses,  aspects, singular and plural numbers are not represented by corresponding morphological changes. Therefore, we can only achieve the expression of the original meaning through level shift.
.........................

2.2 Related Research and Development on Translation Shift Theory
In 1958, the co-authors of the book Comparative Stylistics of French and English: A Methodology for Translation, Jean-Paul Vinay and Jean Darbelnet raised two strategies of translation:  direct  translation  and  oblique  translation;  Some  translation  methods  like borrowing,  calque  and  literal  translation  are  direct  translation,  to  the  contrary,  some translation  methods  like  transposition, modulation,  equivalence  and  adaption  are  oblique translation.  In  this  book,  the  authors  did  not  put  forward  the  concept  of  the translation shifts, but the division of the translation process and the comparison of the source text and the  target  text  are  accord  with the  connotation  of  the  translation  shift  researches. Accordingly,  they  could  be  considered  as  the  representatives  of  translation shift researches.
In  1965,  Catford  proposed  the  concept  of  translation  shift  in  his  book:  A  Linguistic Theory  of  Translation.  He  came  up  with practical  level shift  and  category  shift,  laying  a solid foundation for the development of the translation shift theories in the future.
Czech scholar Anton Popovic reckoned that Catford’s translation shifts theory could not manage in explaining all shifts on the linguistic level, thus he pointing out that “all that appears  as  new  with  respect  to  the  original,  or  fails  to  appear  when  it  might  have  been expected,  may  be  interpreted  as  a  shift”  (Hantao,  2016),  which  can  be  called  expression shifts.  His  main  contribution  to translation  shifts  researches  is  that  he  extended  the research  scope  beyond  linguistic  level  to  various  limitation  factors affecting  translator’s translation strategies.
 ...........................
Chapter Ⅲ Translation Description ·························· 9
3.1 Pre-Translation Preparation ························ 9
3.1.1 Source Text Analysis ······························ 9
3.1.2 Tool Preparation ··························· 10
Chapter Ⅳ Case Analysis ···························· 15
4.1 Level Shift ································ 15
4.2 Category Shift ························ 16
ChapterⅤ Conclusion ························· 25
Appendix  Ⅰ ························· 27
Appendix  Ⅱ ······················ 49
Acknowledgement ··························· 67

Chapter  Ⅳ  Case Analysis

4.1 Level Shift
Level  shift  refers  to  the  source  language  unit  at  a  level  of  language,  with  the equivalent  components  of  the  target  language at  different  language  levels.  Catford’s translation shift theory is based on Halliday's systemic grammar theory. And based on this grammar  theory,  language  should  be  divided  into  four  levels:  grammar,  vocabulary, phonetics  and  glyphs.  But  neither phonetics or  glyphs  is  shifted  into  grammar  or vocabulary,  so  level  shift  can  only  occur  between  the  grammatical  level  and  the  lexical level.
Example  1:  While  proliferation  of  HELE  technology  has  increased  over  the  last decade, about 75% of all global coal-fired plants lack these technologies.
虽然 HELE 技术应用范围在过去十年里已经扩大,但全球约 75%的燃煤厂缺乏这些技术。
Example  2:  Carbon  capture  and  storage  (CCS),  is  being  deployed  at  coal  plants  to reduce the CO2, emissions and may also be applied to natural gas plants in the future.
为减少二氧化碳排放, 煤电厂正在部署碳捕获与储存(CCS),可能在未来将其应用于天然气工厂。
Example 3: This is an approach that can be used in conventional power plants, and it is  well  understood  because  it  has  been  used for  several  decades  in  other  industrial application, although at some what more limited scales.
这是一种可以在传统发电厂中使用的方法,尽管规模有限,但是它已经应用于其他工业几十年,也就众所周知了。
.........................

Chapter  Ⅴ  Conclusion

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