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摘要：本文是一篇英语论文，本次翻译实践文本全文《发电厂在运行和停运后产生的固体废物》（Solid Waste from the Operation and Decommissioning of Power Plants）由美国能源部发表于 2016年 DOE Information Bridge 网......
Chapter Ⅰ Introduction
1.1 Background of the Report
Translation on science and technology is beneficial for the spread and innovation of technological culture, contributing to the prosperity of our country. At present, with the progress of science and technology and the awakening of human civilization, people are paying more and more attention to sustainable development. While pursuing economic benefits, they also pay attention to environmental protection and rational use of energy, so high efficiency with low consumption has become an important goal pursued in the process of industrial development. This report on energy-Solid Waste from the Operation and Decommissioning of Powers was on the web DOE Information Bridge, and Chapter Two Coal was selected to be translated. In this chapter, the operation of the coal-fired power plant, the decommissioning of coal plants, the reuse of the coal plant sites and the related treatment of solid waste are worth learning, which helps to accumulate favorable experiences to develop domestic industry.
The text is from the DOE Information Bridge, a website that retrieves and receives the full text of research and development reports from the US Department of Energy on physics, chemistry, materials, biology, environment, and energy. The author completed the translation on her own, aiming to strengthen the author's ability to translate independently and master the relevant professional knowledge.
The translation of this text is quite practical. The development of power plants is not a challenge faced by a certain country or a certain region, but a problem that the whole world needs to face. This text is mainly about the solid waste generated by the representative coal-fired power plants in the US power plants during and after the operation, the possible use value of these wastes, and the related regulations affecting the treatment of these materials and the decommissioning way of factories. These practical problems can be as a reference for learning experiences.
1.2 Purpose of the Report
The text of science and technology is very complicated for its professional terms and long and difficult sentences, so in order to ensure the accuracy of the text, the author needs to express the source text precisely, completely and concretely by finishing a good translation text under the guidance of relevant translation theory. The main purpose of the translation report is to provide more information on the energy and the relevant strategies to the target readers and encourage them to make full use of energy and protect environment by their own efforts.
The DOE Information Bridge is a website that retrieves and receives the full text of reports in different fields from the US Department of Energy. The text is a report of science and technology on energy from the DOE Information Bridge, which involves the operation process of the coal-fired power plant in the United States and the treatment process of related resources. In the translation, much knowledge of energy and technology will be brought to the readers, which will definitely raise people’s awareness of environmental protection. When people learn about some energy strategies, they can make their contributions and set a good example in the society, then there are increasingly large number of people playing important roles in the process of environment-protecting.
As a developing country, China is exploring its own path of development. Peace and development are the two major themes of today's world, it is also China's own theme. If we are to follow the path of sustainable development, we must learn experiences and lessons from other countries to develop and strengthen ourselves. China has always attached importance to the energy conservation and environmental protection, thus the useful strategies can be learned by the government to improve energy efficiency in our country. The problems faced by US power plants, such as plant operations and solid waste disposal, may also exist in power plants in China. The translation and research of related reports of the former can be important references for the latter.
Chapter Ⅱ Theoretical Framework
2.1 J.C. Catford’s Translation Shift Theory
The famous British translation theorist John Cannison Catford first referred to the concept of translation shift in his book A Linguistic Theory of Translation. The book’s overview states that when analyzing and describing the translation process, you must make full use of the various categories that have been established in the language description. At first, Catford explained the shift to mean that “Departures from form correspondence in the process of going from the SL to TL” (Lijin, 2015). In the process of translation, translators should be sure to pay attention to the translation of the language content, not to the one-to-one correspondence in the language form, and word-for-word translation should be forbidden. Translating the equivalent is not to reproduce the original information in detail, but to pay attention to the accurate communication of semantics. At the same time, the language system of the source language and the target language are different, and the translator inevitably diverges the form of the original text. Therefore it is necessary to take the form of shift so that the translation is close to the original text and the information is kept to complete to the greatest extent.
Catford’s translation shift theory is based on two levels and four basic categories by Halliday's systemic grammar theory. Based on these two levels and four basic categories, Catford subdivided the translation into two major ones, level shift and category shift.
Level shift means that primitive unit on one language level has translating equivalence components of translation language on different language levels, which is the shift between grammar level and vocabulary level. Chinese grammar has the characteristics of implicitness. It has no change of morphological form. Therefore, different from the word form changes and morphological changes, the temporal tense of the words is implicit in the statement, and there is no obvious linguistic sign. This is the opposite of English grammar, and the part of speech in English can be clearly seen through the change of the form. In English grammar, verbs have tense and aspect changes, and nouns have singular and plural changes, but in Chinese grammar, tenses, aspects, singular and plural numbers are not represented by corresponding morphological changes. Therefore, we can only achieve the expression of the original meaning through level shift.
2.2 Related Research and Development on Translation Shift Theory
In 1958, the co-authors of the book Comparative Stylistics of French and English: A Methodology for Translation, Jean-Paul Vinay and Jean Darbelnet raised two strategies of translation: direct translation and oblique translation; Some translation methods like borrowing, calque and literal translation are direct translation, to the contrary, some translation methods like transposition, modulation, equivalence and adaption are oblique translation. In this book, the authors did not put forward the concept of the translation shifts, but the division of the translation process and the comparison of the source text and the target text are accord with the connotation of the translation shift researches. Accordingly, they could be considered as the representatives of translation shift researches.
In 1965, Catford proposed the concept of translation shift in his book: A Linguistic Theory of Translation. He came up with practical level shift and category shift, laying a solid foundation for the development of the translation shift theories in the future.
Czech scholar Anton Popovic reckoned that Catford’s translation shifts theory could not manage in explaining all shifts on the linguistic level, thus he pointing out that “all that appears as new with respect to the original, or fails to appear when it might have been expected, may be interpreted as a shift” (Hantao, 2016), which can be called expression shifts. His main contribution to translation shifts researches is that he extended the research scope beyond linguistic level to various limitation factors affecting translator’s translation strategies.
Chapter Ⅲ Translation Description ·························· 9
3.1 Pre-Translation Preparation ························ 9
3.1.1 Source Text Analysis ······························ 9
3.1.2 Tool Preparation ··························· 10
Chapter Ⅳ Case Analysis ···························· 15
4.1 Level Shift ································ 15
4.2 Category Shift ························ 16
ChapterⅤ Conclusion ························· 25
Appendix Ⅰ ························· 27
Appendix Ⅱ ······················ 49
Acknowledgement ··························· 67
Chapter Ⅳ Case Analysis
4.1 Level Shift
Level shift refers to the source language unit at a level of language, with the equivalent components of the target language at different language levels. Catford’s translation shift theory is based on Halliday's systemic grammar theory. And based on this grammar theory, language should be divided into four levels: grammar, vocabulary, phonetics and glyphs. But neither phonetics or glyphs is shifted into grammar or vocabulary, so level shift can only occur between the grammatical level and the lexical level.
Example 1: While proliferation of HELE technology has increased over the last decade, about 75% of all global coal-fired plants lack these technologies.
虽然 HELE 技术应用范围在过去十年里已经扩大，但全球约 75％的燃煤厂缺乏这些技术。
Example 2: Carbon capture and storage (CCS), is being deployed at coal plants to reduce the CO2, emissions and may also be applied to natural gas plants in the future.
Example 3: This is an approach that can be used in conventional power plants, and it is well understood because it has been used for several decades in other industrial application, although at some what more limited scales.
Chapter Ⅴ Conclusion
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