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摘要:本文是一篇英语论文,本篇报告的翻译材料为《干熄焦设备使用说明》。翻译材料来自笔者在翻译公司实习期间的一项翻译任务。材料分为六部分,主要介绍干熄焦设备的各个组成部分及其相......

本文是一篇英语论文,本篇报告的翻译材料为《干熄焦设备使用说明》。翻译材料来自笔者在翻译公司实习期间的一项翻译任务。材料分为六部分,主要介绍干熄焦设备的各个组成部分及其相应

本文是一篇英语论文,本篇翻译实践报告以目的论作为理论指导,对干熄焦设备产品说明进行翻译和分析。目的论认为翻译活动应该以翻译目的为前提,选取适当的翻译策略和方法,准确传达原文的信息。这与科技文本要求译文准确客观表达原文信息的特点不谋而合。笔者选取翻译材料中的具体实例,从词汇,句型和篇章三个方面分析科技文本的特点,总结了科技文本的翻译技巧和翻译策略,并根据目的论的三原则,对原译和改译进行了对比分析。实践证明,目的论对科技文本的翻译具有指导作用。

Chapter I Introduction

1.1 Translation Background
In  recent  years,  China  has  achieved  remarkable  achievements  in  economy,  politics, culture,  science  and  technology  and  so on. At  the  same  time,  with  the  deepening  of economic globalization, the relationship between China and the world becomes closer and closer, and exchanges and cooperation in various aspects are also deepening. While China actively  introduces  advanced  science and technology  from  foreign  countries,  China's advanced  technology  and  equipment  are  also  constantly  going  abroad.  In  order to learn advanced  science  and  technology  in  various  countries,  accurate  science  and  technology English  translation  must  be carried out,  so  the  role  of  science  and  technology  English translation becomes more and more important. 
It  is  found  that  there  are  not  many  translations  of  scientific  and  technical  texts  on equipment  instructions  of  which  there  are few  materials  about  translating  Chinese  into English.  The  translator  believes  that  more  researches  are  needed  on  the translation  of equipment instruction. It is necessary to summarize the translation methods and skills used in  the  process  of  translating Chinese  into  English  of  scientific  texts.  This  report  can continuously  improve  the  quality  of  translation  and  provide  reference for  other Chinese-English translations about technical text in the future. 
This translation material is about CDQ instruction. The original text of the translated material is in Chinese. The material comes from the translator's translation task during the internship  at  a  translation  consulting  company  in  Shijiazhuang.  The  material  consists  of six parts, including CDQ processing equipment, industrial boiler, heat, industrial building and  structure,  HVAC,  and  automation instruments.  The  content  is  mainly  based  on  the basic structure and working principle of the equipment. This material is designed to help foreign  device  users  understand  the  equipment  and  use  it  more  efficiently,  as  well  as provide technical support for equipment users.
..............................

1.2 Task Goal
The field of this material belongs to the field of science and technology. The original language  of  material  is  Chinese.  This  document contains  13,000  words  approximately. After making a preliminary estimate of the number and difficulty of translation, the author made the following arrangement: the translator plans to translate 1000 words per day, and complete the task in 20 days. Because there are some difficulties in the translation process, and other translation tasks of the expedited documents might be assigned to the translator during the company internship, the task will be fulfilled in 20 days.
The audience of this text is foreign users of the equipment, and the material is used to provide  certain  technical  support  for  device users,  so  the  accuracy  of  translation  will  be particularly important in the translation process.
Nowadays,  China  has  achieved  remarkable  achievements  especially  in  science  and technology. In addition, under the trend of economic globalization, the relationship among countries in the world is closer, and the import and export of products are more frequent. This means that the demand for scientific English translation is also growing.
...........................

Chapter II Theoretical Framework

2.1 A Brief Introduction of Skopos Theory 
Emerged  in  the  1970s,  functional  theories  of  translation  have  gone  through  four development stages.
In the first stage, Catharina Reiss first proposes functional theories of translation as translation  thought  in  the  book  "Possibility  and Limitations  in  Translation  Criticism". Reiss’s  early  theory  involves  the  concept  of  equivalence.  But  in  the  later  period,  she realizes that the fully equivalence can not be achieved, so the functional characteristics of target language should be considered. 
In  the  second  stage,  Hans  Vermeer  points  out  Skopos  theory.  He  releases  the translation  research  from  the  domination of source-text-oriented  theory.  He  believes  that the  results  of  translation  behavior  determine  the  strategy  and  method  used  in  the translation,  that  is,  the  translation  results  determine  the  translation  process.  He  also emphasizes the importance of target-text users, that is, the audience of the text determines the purpose of the translation. 
In  the  third  stage,  Justa  Holz-Manttari  puts  forward  the  concept  of  theory  of translation  action  in  "Translation  Behavior-Theory and  Method"  published  in  1984. Theory  of  translation  action  regards  translation  as  a  result-centered  communicative activity driven  by  purpose.  He  believes  that  translation  is  a  purposeful  intercultural communication activity. He also conducts a detailed analysis of the actors and participator in  the  translation  process.  However,  there  are  many  similarities  between  theory  of translation action and Skopos theory, so Vermeer integrates it later.
In  the  fourth  stage,  Kristiane  Nord  publishes  "Translation  as  a  Purposeful  Activity- Functionalist Approaches Explained" in the 1990s. For the first time, she comprehensively elaborates  various  academic  ideas  of  functionalist  in  English.  She  inherits  and carries forward  the  theory  of  Skopos  theory,  and  puts  forward  the  principle  of  "theory  plus loyalty".
.............................

2.2 The Three Rules of Skopos Theory
Skopos  theory  consists  of  three  principles:  Skopos  rule,  coherence  rule  and  fidelity rule. Among them, fidelity rule subjects to coherence rule, and coherence rule and fidelity rule subjects to Skopos rule.
2.2.1 Skopos Rule
Skopos rule is the most important principle of the three principles of Skopos theory. Skopos theory holds that Skopos rule is the primary principle in all translation activities. Skopos  theory  believes  that  translation  is  a  purposeful  intercultural  communication activity,  and translators  should  choose  proper  translation  strategies  according  to  the purpose of translation. That is, during the translation process, the result of the translation determines  its  method.  However,  the  translation  behavior  can  be  divided  into  several purposes. We can further divide these purposes into three categories: (1) the basic purpose of translator (such as earning a living); (2) the communicative purpose of target language (such  as  inspiring  readers);  (3)  The  purpose  to  be  achieved  using  particular translation means  (e.g.,  using  the  literal  translation  according  to  sentence  structure  to  illustrate  the special features of a grammatical structure). However, in general, the purpose refers to the communicative  purpose  of  target  language.  The  translation  is required  to  indicate  what kind of translation is needed for translators. The translators do not need to passively accept everything,  and they  can  participate  in  determining  the  purpose  of  translation.  When  the translation  initiator  is  not  clear  about  the  purpose  of the  translation  due  to  insufficient professional knowledge or other reasons, the translator can negotiate with the initiator to get  the translation  purpose  from  the  special  translation  situation.  (Zhong  Weihe,  Zhong Rong 1999: 47).
............................
Chapter III Description of Translation Procedure ···················· 9
3.1 Preparation before Translation ··················· 9
3.1.1 Formulation of Term Bank ······················ 9
3.1.2 Preparation of Translation Aid Tool ·················· 10
3.1.3 Choice of Translation Skill ················· 10
Chapter IV Case Study ······························ 13
4.1 Analysis of Feature-based Translation ····················· 13
4.1.1 Vocabulary Features and Translation ···················· 13
4.1.2 Sentence Features and Translation ···················· 15
Chapter V Conclusion ······················ 29
5.1 Translation Gains ····························· 29
5.2 Research Limitations ························ 29

Chapter IV Case Study

4.1 Analysis of Feature-based Translation
4.1.1 Vocabulary Features and Translation
4.1.1.1 Massive Use of Compound Words and Acronyms
There are large numbers of scientific and technical vocabularies in the technical text. These  terms  are  divided  into  technical  terms, semi-technical  terms  and  non-technical terms.  Technical  terms  are  terminology  that  only  applies  to  a  single  subject,  such  as: nitrogen,  Verabar,  Venturi,  etc.  Semi-technical  terms  refer  to  words  with  different meanings  in  different  professional  fields. Technical  terms  are  important,  but  they  need non-technical terms to string all these vocabularies together to form a complete sentence and  discourse,  expressing  the  thoughts  and  meanings  of  sentences  and  texts  completely (Zhang  Qin,  2016). Technical  vocabularies  have  its  own  unique  lexical  features,  such  as massive use of compound word and abbreviations.
The  compound  word  is  a  new  word  that  combines  two  or  more  words  according  to certain rules. There are many technical vocabularies in English for science and technology that do not have clear expressions and fixed statements, so they need to be expressed by means  of  compound  words.  The  composition  of  the  compound  word  includes  the combination  of  noun  and  noun, such  as:  bag-type  dust  remover,  man-machine  operation interfaces, dust-removal low voltage distribution room; a combination of noun and gerund, such as: heat-accumulating, cold coke-carrying, ash-removing manholes, wear-resisting; a combination  of  adjective and  noun,  such  as:  real-time,  high-temperature,  low-pressure, low-temperature;  a  combination  of  noun  and  verb  past  participle, such  as,  cone-shaped  , machine-made bricks; a combination of preposition and noun, such as: on-site, off-line; a combination of noun and adjective, such as: explosion-proof, rust-proof and so on.
.............................

Chapter V Conclusion

5.1 Translation Gains

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