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摘要:本文是一篇英语论文,通过本次翻译实践,笔者对如何用功能对等理论指导小说翻译有了更深刻的认识。用正确的理论指导实践对译文质量起到重要作用,在进行文学翻译时,要尽可能保留原......

本文是一篇英语论文,通过本次翻译实践,笔者对如何用功能对等理论指导小说翻译有了更深刻的认识。用正确的理论指导实践对译文质量起到重要作用,在进行文学翻译时,要尽可能保留原文

本文是一篇英语论文,本次翻译实践材料节选《伟大的孤独》的第一章到第三章,约 11000 字,目标受众为对西方文学感兴趣的中国读者及广大学者。本次实践在保证译文忠实于原文的前提下,使其具有可读性,满足中文读者的阅读习惯和阅读需求。由于中英语言差异,保留原文的写作风格、细致的人物刻画和景色描写,成为本次翻译实践的难点

Chapter I Introduction

1.1 Background Information
Nowadays,  cultural  barriers  in  the  world  are  gradually  decreasing.  Novels,  as  a medium  of  cultural  transmission,  can  reflect  the customs  and  ideologies  of  different cultures. Novels are the most direct and interesting way for people to understand a culture. Therefore,  many  novels  are  translated  into  foreign  languages  and  spread  to  the  outside world.  In  China,  it  can  be  seen  on  the Internet,  in  bookstores  or  libraries.  Novels  in  all kinds  of  languages  are  translated  into  Chinese.  From  the  perspective  of literature development, modern Chinese literature has also been influenced by translated literature. Therefore, translating foreign excellent literary works will contribute to domestic literature. This  is  a  way  of  absorbing  foreign  culture  and  promoting  cultural  exchanges between countries.
The Great Alone is a bestseller published by Saint Martin’s Press, one of the world's largest  English  book  publishers.  Kristin  Hannah  is  one  of  New  York  Times  bestselling writers who came out more than twenty novels. She has won many literature awards, such as  National  Reader's  Choice  Award,  The  Golden  Heart,  The  Maggie.  Her  writing  style emphasizes family bond and values, love and loss. Her masterpieces such as Nightingale and  Firefly  Lane,  which  are  all  set  in  the  context  of  World  War  II,  attract  readers  of different ages. The Great Alone, as soon as it came out in February 2018, instantly became the  top  of  New  York  Times  bestseller. The  novel  has  caught  the  attention  of  mainstream medias, attracting numerous readers. The New York Times, Book List, Library Journal and other media think highly of it. For example, Kirkus reviews, “A tour de force. There are many great things about this book.”
...........................

1.2 Objectives
This  translation  project  covers  a  total  amount  of  about  11000  words,  which  is selected  from  Chapter  One  to  Chapter  Three. The  project  belongs  to  the  literature translation  focusing  on  American  culture.  The  target  readers  are  Chinese  readers  and scholars  who  are  interested  in  western  literature.  Under  the  premise  of  ensuring  the faithfulness  of  the  translation  to  the original  text,  the  translator  would  enhance  the readability  of  the  novel.  To  meet  the  reading  habits  and  needs  of  Chinese readers,  the translator  would  translate  the  source  text  under  the  guidance  of  Functional  Equivalence Theory. In order to give the target language readers similar feeling as the source language readers have, the translator would try best to retain the original writing style and convey the  author’s  intention.  To  the  most  extent,  the  translator  would  portray  the  fictional characters as the original way. Through the whole translation project, the translator aims to put the translation theory into practice.
From the perspective of readers, wars can break the strongest mind. After moving to a  desolate  area,  the  three-person  family  start a new  life,  but  the  following  problems  of survival is a great challenge for them. The family shows great unity along the way which is  full of  thorns  and  roses.  The  translation  will  exactly  close  to  the  original  text  to  the greatest  extent,  thus  making  readers  enjoy beautiful  natural  scenery.  Readers  will  like simple  and  sincere  inhabitants  of  Kenaq.  Moreover,  the  exotic  landscape  will  attract readers to go sightseeing along Homer Spit, a 7.2 km long piece of land in Homer, Alaska. It is obvious that modern American pioneers shows perseverance in course of time. This is a story about family love and loss, the struggle for survival, and the wildness that lives in both  man  and  nature.  The  story  is  full  of  philosophies  of  life.  In  Alaska,  the  survival  is important, that is, knowing when to give up and just move on.  
............................

Chapter II Description of Translation Process

2.1 Pre-translation Preparation
Pre-translation preparation is indispensable to translation practice. In order to better interpret the original text, the translator would know about the background of the age and the  author’s  experience  and  other  works.  Then,  the  translator  would  read  some  parallel texts,  including  4  books  on  Functional  Equivalence  Theory  and  Stylistic  Translation,  18 postgraduate dissertations mainly related to novel translation strategies and the application of "four-character" in translation.
Next,  using  proper  translation  tools  can  promote  the  translation  progress.  Thus,  the translator  should  use  the  essential translation  tools,  such  as  Oxford  English  Dictionary, Collins  English  Dictionary,  Lu  Gusun  English-Chinese  Dictionary,  Modern Chinese Dictionary, and some other relevant materials such as National Geographic, Alaska maps. To get the basic background knowledge, the translator will search online resources, such as Wikipedia and Kristin Hannah’s official website. 
Finally,  the  translator  would  do  the  initial  translation  under  the  guidance  of Functional Equivalence Theory and then make corrections under the teacher’s help so as to eliminate the cultural differences and give an equal feeling to the target readers as the source language readers have.
2.1.1 Introduction to the author and the source text
The author Kristin Hannah is the mother of one son and lives with her husband in the Pacific Northwest. Her work mainly shows family relationship, and how love, death and birth  run  the  full  circle  of  life.  Her  writing  style  is  famous  for  its  delicate  and  profound description. Her works are fresh in style, blended with affective elements such as family and love, and are suitable for readers of different ages.
.............................

2.2 Analysis of the Key and Difficult Points
The novel has three elements: character, plot and environment (natural environment and social environment). Character is the core of the novel. The plot is the skeleton of the novel,  and  the  environment  is  the  backing  of  the  novel.  A  successful  novel  will  clearly present  the  three  elements  to  the  readers,  so  a  good  translation  work  has  to  describe  the characters,  plots  and  environment as  the  original  did.  The  Great  Alone  mainly  relies  on portrayal  and  discourse  to  describe  typical  literary  images.  Showing  the changing environment  depends  on  scenery  descriptions.  To  sum  up,  the  author  uses  characters’ utterances,  characterization and  scenery  description  to  promote  the  development  of  the plot. These three things are the key points of this translation practice. 
However, there are some difficulties during the translation process. Characterization is a key point in fiction translation. The portrayal of this novel is attractive and riveting, which is difficult to retain. In order to deal with the problem, the translator need to figure out the psychology of differnt characters. With the development of the plot, the characters have delicate emotional changes which are hard to grasp. Moreover, due to the differences between English and Chinese, it is difficult to represent the beautiful scenery description about Alaska. In addition, how to retain the beauty of the source language is worthy to be cosidered. In this way, retaining the original writing style is really a great challenge for the translator.
............................
Chapter III Theoretical Basis ............................ 9
3.1 A Brief Introduction to Eugene A. Nida’s Translation Theory ..................... 9
3.2 Fiction Translation ........................................ 9
3.3 Fiction Translation Under the Guidance of Functional Equivalence Theory ........... 10
Chapter IV Case Analysis .............................. 12
4.1 Functional Equivalence at Lexical Level ............................. 12
4.1.1 Word-class Shift .................................... 13
4.1.2 Free Translation ................................... 13
Chapter V Conclusion ............................ 20

Chapter IV Case Analysis

4.1 Functional Equivalence at Lexical Level
In literary works, many words and phrases have special contextual meaning, or even the  writer's  implied  meaning.  They  undertake the  important  task  of  conveying  the connotation  of  the  works,  expressing  the  author's  thoughts  and  highlighting  the  artistic style. Therefore, the translator should give priority to the words’ meanings in the specific context  of  the  source  text  and  the messages  conveyed  by  the  writer.  Then,  the  translator should express the original in a natural and appropriate language so as to help the target readers better understand the source text, as a result, achieving contextual consistency is prior to word consistency, namely functional equivalence at lexical level.
On the other hand, the parts of speech of English and Chinese (such as verbs, nouns, adjectives, etc.) are roughly the same, but English and Chinese belong to two completely different  language  families—English  belongs  to  Indo-European  language  family, while Chinese  belongs  to  Sino-Tibetan  language  family.  Because  English  and  Chinese  have great differences in vocabulary, word order, and grammatical structure, so word structure can’t  be  translated  in  parallel  way  that  will  make  the  translation  rigid.  Therefore,  in the translation process, the translator should not only fully grasp the meaning of the original text,  but  also  choose  appropriate  words and  expressions  to  organize  the  target  language, and properly use the conversion of part-of-speech to make the target language fluent, vivid and natural. 
.........................

Chapter V Conclusion

[日本essay代写] 《伟大的孤独》(节选)汉译实践报告之英语研究http://www.0592w.com/lunwenfanwen/4494.html

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