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摘要:本文是一篇英语论文,本论文认为莫里森对黑人民族的过去、现在和未来所作的理性思考及其不懈探索已经引起巨大的共鸣,由此也突显了文学作品的社会功能和作家通过其作品所承担的社会......

本文是一篇英语论文,本论文认为莫里森对黑人民族的过去、现在和未来所作的理性思考及其不懈探索已经引起巨大的共鸣,由此也突显了文学作品的社会功能和作家通过其作品所承担的社会责

本文是一篇英语论文,本论文将在前人研究的基础之上,以斯蒂芬·格林布拉特、海登·怀特等人的新历史主义理论为指导,通过反思《宠儿》故事发生的历史文化语境及其文本再现,旨在重现并重构那段黑人民族的历史,阐释奴隶制下因“未被言说”而又“不可言说”的历史记忆而造成的永久的历史创伤,展现莫里森浓郁的历史意识、民族意识和高尚的人文情怀。

Chapter 1   Literature Review文献综述

1.1 Studies on Beloved Abroad国外宠儿研究

自出版以来,对“宠儿”的不断解读一直在国外进行。

至于小说中的人物研究,在文章“女儿的意义(历史):托尼​​莫里森的爱人的例子”(1992)中,阿什拉夫·A·拉什迪非常强调女儿“宠儿”的历史象征意义。他认为,虽然“爱人”这个角色是“对奴隶制度的非人性化功能的不懈批评的象征”,并体现了必须被人们记住以致被遗忘的过去,但丹佛则表示“拥抱一瞥,爱好”看来,需要记住“她成了希望的地方。 (Rushdy,1992:578)Teresa N. Washington的文章“Toni Morrison's Beloved中的母女关系”(2005)研究了母女之间的关系,并指出“母亲和女儿的母亲不是摧毁他们的后代。引用塞特的话说,他们把它们放在“他们安全的地方”(华盛顿,2005:174)。奥利维亚·M·帕斯(Olivia M. Pass)的中心是在他的文章“托尼莫里森的宠儿:悲伤的痛苦之旅”(2006)中解释人物的心理情绪。在“声音的恢复力:托尼莫里森的宠儿的共同宣泄案例”(2007年)中,罗克珊·里德探讨了黑人女性所扮演的精神领导角色。

Continuous  interpretations  on  Beloved  have  been  going  on  abroad  since  it  was published.
As to studies on the characters in the novel, in the essay “Daughters Signifyin(g) History: The Example of Toni Morrison’s Beloved” (1992), Ashraf H. A. Rushdy places great  emphasis  on  the  historical  symbolic  connotation  of  the  daughter  Beloved.  He holds the view that while the character Beloved is “a symbol of an unrelenting criticism of  the  dehumanizing  function  of  the  institution of slavery” and embodies the past that must be remembered so as to be forgotten, Denver signifies “the embracing glance, the loving view, the need to remember” and she becomes the site of hope. (Rushdy, 1992: 578)  Teresa  N.  Washington’s  article  “The  Mother-Daughter  àjé  Relationship  in  Toni Morrison’s  Beloved”  (2005)  does  research  on  the  relationship  between  mother  and daughter, pointing out that “[t]ormented mothers of àjé are not destroying their progeny. To quote Sethe, they are putting them ‘where they’d be safe’” (Washington, 2005: 174). Olivia  M.  Pass  centers  on  giving  an  explanation  of  the  psychological  emotions  of  the characters in his essay “Toni Morrison’s Beloved: A Journey through the Pain of Grief” (2006). In the article “The Restorative Power of Sound: A Case of Communal Catharsis in Toni Morrison’s Beloved” (2007), Roxanne R. Reed probes into the spiritual leading role which the black women play.
Considering  studies  on  the  themes  of  the  novel,  Barbara  Schapiro  analyzes  the theme of love and self in his paper “The Bonds of Love and the Boundaries of Self in Toni  Morrison’s  Beloved”  (1991),  holding  the  view  that  “[t]he  free,  autonomous  self, Beloved teaches, is an inherently social self, rooted in relationship and dependent at its core  on  the  vital  bond  of  mutual  recognition” (Schapiro,  1991:  209).  In  the  essay “Narrating the Self: Aspects of Moral Psychology in Toni Morrison’s Beloved” (1997), Thomas M. Linehan explores the moral psychology problems of the black. In the article “Violence,  Home  and  Community  in  Toni  Morrison’s Beloved”  (1999),  Nancy  Jesser studies  home  and  community  of  the  black,  maintaining  that  “Beloved  shows  both  the dystopian and  utopian  properties  of  the  space  named  ‘home’  and  the  people  named ‘community’”  (Jesser,  1999:  328).  Peggy  Ochoa’s paper  “Morrison’s  Beloved: Allegorically  Othering  ‘White’  Christianity”  (1999)  delves  into  religious  theme  of  the novel.  Mary  J. S. Elliott’s  main  concern  in  her  essay  “Postcolonial  Experience  in  a Domestic  Context:  Commodified  Subjectivity  in  Toni  Morrison’s Beloved”  (2000)  is the subjectivity and identity construction of the black. Robert Fallon concentrates on the theme  of  music  and memory  in  his  article  “Music  and  the  Allegory  of  Memory  in ‘Margaret Garner’” (2006). 
................................

1.2 Studies on Beloved at Home
When Toni Morrison visited China with an American writer delegation in 1985, her name or her works were familiar to few people in China. The studies on Beloved were almost non-existent except for Wang Youxuan and Luo Xuanmin’s articles. As the news of  the 1993  Nobel  Prize  for  Literature  reached  China,  a  good  many  Chinese  scholars began to attach greater importance to Morrison’s novels, especially the Pulitzer-winning Beloved, bringing about a cluster of essays published in various academic journals.
In  terms  of  artistic  creation,  Xi  Chuanjin’s  article  in  Foreign  Literature  Studies (1997)  interprets  Beloved  from  the  perspective of  magic  realism.  Zhang  Ruwen  and Zhou  Qun’s  essay  in  Foreign  Languages  and  Their  Teaching  (2005),  by  analyzing vocabulary, grammar and rhetoric devices, shows how Toni Morrison makes use of the relationships  between  language  and  power  to create  the  two  main  discourses  in  the confusion of time and space of Beloved (Zhang Ruwen & Zhou Qun, 2005: 28). In 1993, Luo Xuanmin’s critical article entitled “Absurd Rationality and Rational Absurdity: On the  Critical  Consciousness  of  Toni  Morrison’s Beloved”  addresses  motherhood, exploring  Morrison’s  critique  of  traditional  attitudes  towards  motherhood  as  both confining  and destructive  and  illustrating  her  humanist  concerns  in  the  novel.  (Luo Xuanmin, 1993: 64-65)
Regarding  narrative  structure,  Weng  Lehong  publishes  her  paper  in  Foreign Literature  Review  (1999),  which  reveals  that Morrison  endows  Beloved  with  complex characteristics ranging from man and ghost, tradition and reality to spirit and material. These characteristics  not  only  contribute  to  Beloved  as  a  pivotal  character  in  the narrative  development  of  the  whole  novel,  but  also become  a  narrative  strategy  of Morrison’s novel creation. (Weng Lehong, 1999: 65-72) Wang Lili’s essay in Journal of South-Central University  for  Nationalities  (Humanities  and  Social  Sciences)  (2004), based on narratology, does research on the inner relationships between central narration and marginal narration in Beloved and shows Morrison’s feminine writing brings a new meaning to literature.
................................

Chapter 2   Theoretical Framework—New Historicism

2.1 Background of New Historicism
New Historicism was first put forward in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Before it boomed, most of the major literary theories in the 20th century adhered to the literary ontology  and  viewed  literature  as  a  self-contained  field  that  was  independent  of historical  politics. For  example,  Russian  formalism,  which  was  born  in  the  early  20th century,  raised  the  banner  of  “literariness”  and  opposed “regarding  art  works  as  the window  of  the  world”  (Hawkes,  1987:  148).  New  Criticism,  prevailing  in  Europe  and America  after the  Second  World  War,  proposed  overcoming  “intentional  fallacy”  and “affective fallacy”, and breaking up the relationship between literature and such external factors as author’s intentions and readers’ feelings so as to concentrate on the study of literary texts. In the new era of structuralism in the 1950s and 1960s, the structuralists were  committed  to  examining  the  structural  model  of  texts  and laid  little  emphasis  on exploring the links between literature, society and history. With structuralism springing up,  critics  even  argued that  there  was  nothing  beyond  the  text,  and  the  text  itself  was nothing  more  than  an  endless  symbolic  game.  It  was  not concerned  with  its  ultimate meaning, let alone the connection with culture and politics. 
It  is  because  New  Historicism  focuses  on  associating  a  literary  text  with  its historical  context  that  it  is  distinctly  different  from New  Criticism,  structuralism  and other literary theories. However, it is not a unique way for New Historicism to take the historical context  into  account  while  studying  literature.  As  early  as  the  19th  century, Hippolyte Adolphe Taine, a French critic, clearly pointed out that literary creation, not isolated,  is  subject  to  the  three  main  aspects  of  which  Taine  called  race,  milieu,  and moment. He held that “in order to understand a piece of art, an artist or a group of artists, it  is  important  to  think  about  the  spirits and  customs  of  their  time.  This  is  the  final interpretation  of  the  artwork  and  the  basic  reason  for  everything”  (Taine,  1998: 46). Also, Northrop Frye once declared that literature is located in the humanities; history is on one side, and philosophy is on the other. Because literature itself is not a systematic knowledge  structure,  so  critics  must  find  events  from  conceptual  framework  of historians, and find ideas from the conceptual framework of philosophers. (Frye, 2009: 12) This actually tells us that historical research has been done before and it is the most basic method of literary research. 
...............................

2.2 Development of New Historicism
The  second  half  of  the  twentieth  century  witnessed  different  voices  in  American literary criticism. In 1980, Stephen Greenblatt, an American professor at the University of  California,  Berkeley,  published  Renaissance  Self-fashioning:  from  More  to Shakespeare (1988), an influential work in literary criticism. He advocated “cultural or anthropological  criticism”  (Greenblatt,  1980:  4)  in  this  book. Obviously,  Greenblatt  is the  main  representative  of  New  Historicism.  Meanwhile,  Louis  Adrian  Montrose,  a professor  at  the University  of  California,  San  Diego,  is  an  active  supporter  of  New Historicism and practices the theory in a fuller way. In the same year, he also published “Elise, Queen of Shepherds” and the Pastoral of Power, in which he pointed out that during the reign of Elizabeth I, pastoral poetry had the ideological function of regulating social  class  relations.  In  1982,  the  term  New  Historicism  was coined  by  Greenblatt when he “collected a bunch of essays and then, out of a kind of desperation to get the introduction  done,  I wrote  that  the  essays  represented  something  I  called  a  ‘new historicism’”  (Greenblatt,  2007:  197).  Greenblatt  argued  that those  essays  in  Genre showed  the  critics  tended  to  juxtapose  literature  and  history  and  challenge  the hypothesis which made an absolute division between artistic production and other social production. (Greenblatt, 1982: 6) In February of 1983, the journal Representations was set  up,  providing  a  platform  for  the  critics  advocating  examining  literature  in  its historical  and  cultural context.  Just  a  few  years  later,  this  new  school  of  literary criticism  of  which  Greenblatt  called  New  Historicism,  was  boomed and  considered  as “the latest and most valuable literary criticism to our students (and our culture)” (Graff, 1985:  197).  It  quickly replaced  structuralism  and  was  popular  with  American  literary critics.
................................
Chapter 3 Historical Restoration and Reconstruction ........................ 17
3.1 Rewriting Margaret Garner’s Case ................................ 17
3.2 Representations of the Southern Plantation ........................... 20
3.3 Reflections on the Middle Passage ........................... 24
Chapter 4 Historical Trauma and Reconstruction of the Haunting Memory.......... 27
4.1 Sethe’s Haunting Memories ................................... 27
4.2 Memories in Paul D’s Tobacco Tin ................................. 30
4.3 Memories in Baby Suggs’ Preaching .................. 32
Chapter 5 Historical Consciousness ........................... 36
5.1 Reconstruction of Black Discourse Power .......................... 36
5.2 Reconstruction of Black Identity ................................ 39
5.3 Quest for Restoration of Black Culture ............................ 41

Chapter 5   Historical Consciousness

5.1 Reconstruction of Black Discourse Power
In the mid-1980s, Montrose’s ideas transformed into his late-stage literature view. He  changed  from  an  objectivist  to  a  historical relativist  and  stressed  the  subjective initiative  and  the  relativity  of  the  meaning  of  events.  In  his  eyes,  culture  is  more autonomous  in  the  process  of  reflecting  itself,  and  is  more  flexible  in  the  way  of reflections and production relationships. Literature always has social functions that are dynamic  in  certain  aspects,  participating  in  the  circulation  and  establishment  of dominant ideology, or changing and challenging the dominant ideological discourse of power to represent marginal voices. But in addition to these effects, literature also needs to  produce  or  reproduce  a  new  kind  of  cultural  consciousness,  a  more  real  voice of discourse,  and  to  attach  greater  importance  to  the  interpretive  and  guiding  role  of  the subject spirit in history. (Wang Yuechuan, 1999: 177) Through Beloved, it can be found that the black slaves are always fighting for discourse power, which shows the hope of the black people.
The  black  slaves  are  deprived  of  all  human  rights  because  of  slavery  discourse power. It is a common thing that their families are separated from each other. Worse still, regarded  as  animals,  they  can  be  bought  and  sold  at  any  time,  and  they  have  no discourse power in a society where slavery discourse dominates. In Beloved, when Paul D remembered his partners at Sweet Home, he said, “One crazy, one sold, one missing, one burnt and me licking iron with my hands crossed behind me.” (Morrison, 1987: 72) Apparently,  “the  sold  one  never  returned,  the  lost  one  never  found.”  (Morrison,  1987: 125). Being muzzled, Paul D was deprived of the right to use language. Besides Paul D, another  character  in  the  novel,  Sixo,  had  a  language  contest  with  schoolteacher  for stealing that shoat.
...........................

Conclusion

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