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摘要:本文是一篇英语论文,研究发现,两套英语教科书在文化内容和文化呈现方式两方面均存在不少相似点和不同点。文化内容选择上,两套教科书均重视普适性,交际性,尽力避免同质化倾向,......

本文是一篇英语论文研究发现,两套英语教科书在文化内容和文化呈现方式两方面均存在不少相似点和不同点。文化内容选择上,两套教科书均重视普适性,交际性,尽力避免同质化倾向,但

本文是一篇英语论文,本研究基于 Martin  Cortazzi 和 Lixian Jin(1999)的文化分类理论,结合教科书所含文化内容状况,又增添共同文化和比较文化两个文化种类,主要从目的语文化、母语文化、国际文化、共同文化和比较文化五个维度对比研究中国人民教育出版社出版的 NSEFC 和日本东京书籍出版的 All  Aboard Series 两套高中英语教科书中阅读材料所含的文化内容及其呈现方式。

Chapter 1 Literature Review

1.1 Studies on the Classifications of Culture
It is never easy to reach a compromise about how to classify culture. Culture can be classified quite differently from different angles.  
In terms of the population of a specific cultural community, Riesman, Denney and Glazer  (1950:  361)  propose  “subculture”,  which actively  seeks  a  minority  style,  to distinguish from a majority. Since then, “dominant culture” and “subculture” have been in the process of classifying culture. 
To stand out the differences between civilization and life culture, Allen and Valette (1977)  classifies  culture  into  “culture  with a  big  C” and  “culture  with  a  small  c”.  The former mainly refers to man’s contribution to civilization and the achievements, such as arts, philosophy and literature. The latter refers to man’s life style and behavior patterns, including customs, social organizations and dietary habits. 
To  some  cross-cultural  researchers,  there  are  two  levels  in  culture.  Hall  (1959) holds a view that overt culture and covert culture are two levels in culture. In his point of view, while overt culture can be seen and depicted in language, there is no possibility of covert culture to be caught sight of, even by well-trained observers. Coincided with Hall’s  view  about  cultural  classifications,  Liu  Shouhua (1992)  points  out  that  culture mainly consists of overt culture and covert culture. Gu Jiazu (2002) argues that the overt culture  which can  be  clearly  and  directly  seen  by  naked  eyes,  refers  to  the  exposed material  culture  to  man,  including  clothes,  roads, buildings,  food,  furniture,  means  of transportation, communication tools, streets, villages and so on. Covert culture refers to soft culture or spiritual culture, comprised of two levels as well, including soft culture hidden deep in material culture and that hidden in a shallow level. 
...........................

1.2 Studies on the Relationship between
Language and Culture Language  and  culture  are  mutually  dependent  on  each  other.  The  close interdependence deserves much attention. 
Sapir  (1921:  99)  notes  that  “Language  does  not  exist  apart  from  culture.”  Robert (1964:  149-150)  argues  that  the  language study  without  understanding  the  culture  and realizing the value of target language is actually not a language study. The learning of culture  is  of  much  more  importance  than  that  of  words  and  grammars.  According  to Nida (1998), there is no possibility for language and culture to exist without each other. Besides  representing  elements  of  culture,  languages  serve  to  mold  culture  as well. Because of the faster change of culture than language, either the syntagmatic contexts or the cultural contexts determine a word’s meaning. As Wang Yin (2007) states, languages reflect  the  differences  of  cognitive  structure  or  conceptual  system  between different races, and languages serve to help people know the world as a tool. 
Some  scholars  put  the  focus  on  the  relationship  between  language  and  culture  in foreign  language  education.  According  to Kramsch  (1993:  8-9),  it  is  an  entrenched feature  in  foreign  language  education  to  teach  four  skills  of  language  “plus  culture”. Culture is not mere the information conveyed by the language, but actually is a feature of language itself. Language should be considered as a social practice. It is impossible to dissociate language use from cultural creation and transmission. Cultural awareness should  become  an  educational  objective  closely  related  to  language.  The  teaching  of culture  should  be  the  core  of  foreign language  education.  “Teaching  language  is teaching culture.” (ibid.: 177) Horwitz (1999) points out that the cultures embodied in languages have a direct impact on the learning beliefs of students. Hao Linxiao (2007: 61)  claims  that  the  process  of  understanding texts  is  the  process  of  understanding language  and  the  culture  behind  it.  Heidi  (2010)  studies  the  role  of  culture  in  foreign language  curriculum  and  discusses  the  ways  to  convey  meanings  between  and  among different  cultures.  Patricia,  Justine  and Carrie  (2013)  utilize  a  mixed  method  research design, including questionnaires, interviews, focus group discussions and observation of lessons  to  explore  the  learning  and  teaching  of  cultural  awareness  and  cross-cultural understandings  in  modern  languages in  English  primary  schools.  It  is  indicated  that much  importance  should  be  attached  to  cultural  dimensions  in  language teaching,  but how  to  teach  culture  is  not  planned  systematically. 
.........................

Chapter 2 Theoretical Framework

2.1 The Definition of Textbook
In  history,  textbook  has  been  overlapped  with  teaching  material  for  a  long  time. Textbook  or teaching  material  refers  to  all  the teaching  and  learning  materials  for teachers and students, which can broaden students’ knowledge and develop their skills. It includes textbook, lecture note, syllabus, workbook, handbook, newspaper, magazine, picture, photo, tape, video, movie, realia, radio, Internet information and so on (Li Quan, 2012: 3). 
Nowadays, textbook is included in teaching material. According to Gowin (1981), textbooks  are  books  used  as  an  educational instrument,  which  is  a  medium  of reasonable  thinking,  a  collection  of  concepts  and  information,  a  stimulus  to  new meaning and experience, and a record of past events and new ideas (Jiang Shanye, 1991: 129).  F.  Richaudeau  (1986)  defines  textbooks  as  a tool  that  can  meet  the  needs  for teaching,  learning  and  training,  and  that  can  help  students  memorize  things  (Zeng Tianshan, 1998:  52).  As  Educational  Dictionary  (1990:  448)  explains,  textbooks  are instructional  books  compiled  in  accordance  with curriculum  standards.  Textbooks  are the  major  teaching  and  learning  materials  for  teachers  and  students,  the  vital  basis  for extending  students’  knowledge  and  evaluating  students’  performance  in  learning activities. Texts are fundamental in textbooks. 
“Textbook”  in  this  thesis  refers  to  the  English  textbook  for  students  compiled according  to  curriculum  standards  and  primarily utilized  in  the  process  of  learning  in class, which precisely refers to NSEFC of China and All Aboard Series of Japan. 
..........................

2.2 The Definition of Culture
There is never an easy way to give a precise definition on the term culture due to its  richness  and  complication  of  connotations  and denotations.  Culture  can  be  defined differently as it can refer to different things in different contexts. 

Culture is defined both from a macro perspective and a micro perspective. Scholars such  as  Tylor  (1871),  Goodenough  (1964)  and Moreman  (1988)  provide  their definitions on culture in a broad sense. Tylor (1871) gives the first academic definition on  culture  in  a systematic  way,  which,  still  being  widely  cited,  paves  the  way  for later-on  cultural  studies.  It  is  defined  that  “Culture,  or civilization,  taken  in  its  broad, ethnographic sense, is a complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law,  custom, and any  other  capabilities  and  habits  acquired  by  man  as  a  member  of society” (Tylor, 1871:1). Goodenough (1964: 9) states that culture are the forms of the things people think of, and the patterns of the ways they think of those things. Moreman (1988)  defines culture  as  a  set  or  a  system  of  principles  of  interpretation  and  the products of that system. As claimed by Li Shanrong (1996: 22), culture should include all  the  processes  and  achievements  of  man’s  social  activities.  Culture  is  defined  in  a narrow  sense  by scholars  like  Malinowski  (1944),Hall  (1959)  and  Gu  Jiazu  (2002). Malinowski (1944) brings forward that culture, comprised of two basic aspects, utensils and customs, is a well-organized system, which satisfies human needs in an either direct or indirect way (Li Taohong, 2015:5). Hall (1959) and Gu Jiazu (2002) holds the view that  culture  is  a  combination  of  material  things  and  spiritual things.  Material  ones include  clothes,  roads,  buildings,  food,  furniture,  means  of  transportation, communication  tools,  streets, villages  and  so  on.  Spiritual  ones  include  customs, traditions, ideas, assumptions, beliefs and so on. 

..........................

Chapter 3 Comparison between China’s English Curriculum Standards and Japan’s Education Guiding Essentials for English Subject ........................ 21
3.1 China’s English Curriculum Standards for High School .................................. 21
3.2 Japan’s Education Guiding Essentials for High School .................................... 23
Chapter 4 Comparison of Cultural Contents and Their Presentation ..................... 29
4.1 Comparison of Target Culture ......................... 30
4.2 Comparison of Source Culture ............................... 36
Chapter 5 Implications for China’s EFL Education .............................. 64
5.1 Implications for Curriculum Standard Designers ................................ 64
5.2 Implications for Textbook Compilers .............................. 66

Chapter 5 Implications for China’s EFL Education

5.1 Implications for Curriculum Standard Designers
English curriculum standards are the guidelines on what to select and how to select for  English  textbooks,  and  on  what  to  teach and how  to  teach  for  English  teachers. Hence,  it  is  of  much  necessity  to  point  out  what  disadvantages  are  there  in  English curriculum standards so that more proper standards can be set, better textbooks can be compiled and more effective teaching can be made. 
Firstly, specific objectives should be set for each book, even in the same module. As  mentioned  in  Chapter  3,  Japan’s  Education Guiding  Essentials  for  English  subject set  specific  objectives  for  each  book  of  a  series.  But  it  cannot  be  seen  in  China’s curriculum standards for English. China’s features the objectives for each module, such as  the  module  for  compulsory  curriculum, compulsory  curriculum  with  selective modules, and selective modules. Each module, as a whole, sets its objectives, but does not  set specific  ones  for  each  book  in  the  module.  Book  1  to  5  comprises  the compulsory module, which sets a general cultural objective for the module that students should  understand  the  different  cultural  elements  and  connotations  in  the  contexts. (MOE, 2017: 47) It is advised that the cultural elements and connotations in each book, even  in  each  unit,  needing  to  be  understood should  be  pointed  out  so  that  the  cultural teaching will be more effective. 
.........................

Conclusion

[essay结论部分怎么写] 中日高中英语教科书文化内容及其呈现方式对比研究--以NSEFC与All Aboard Sehttp://www.0592w.com/lunwenfanwen/4534.html

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