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时间:2021-09-08 14:00 来源: Essay代写

摘要:本文旨在探讨使用一种营销组合工具,并以丰田为研究案例,以评估其有效性。它由2个部分组成。......

案例研究 Introduction 介绍
 

营销可以通过不同的角度来定义,如销售导向,生产导向和营销导向。同时,市场定位是确定营销最常见的定位。它把消费者放在首位,注重对消费者需求的满足,然后做出相应的决定生产,根据市场信息价格和地点(体2008)。即消费者的需求是企业任何营销活动的起点。它是面向消费者的。因此,营销不仅仅是向消费者销售产品或服务,而是对他们最需要的产品或服务的销售。

Marketing can be defined through various perspectives, such as selling orientation, production orientation and marketing orientation. Contemporarily, marketing orientation is the most common orientation to define marketing. It puts consumers at the first place, focuses on satisfaction of consumer needs, and then makes appropriate decisions on production, price and place according to market information (Boddy 2008). Namely, consumer demands are the starting point of any marketing activity of a firm. It is consumer-oriented. Therefore, marketing is not just about selling products or services to consumers, but concerning selling products or services they most need to them. 

在制定营销决策时,营销经理必须选择合适的营销组合。根据博迪(2008),是市场营销组合的混合产品的特点,决定价格,通信方法,并借鉴企业营销经理竞争地位的市场产品分布。换句话说,一个营销组合包括四个维度:产品、价格、促销和地点。它涉及到什么产品是以什么价格出售给消费者,什么促进方法和在什么地方。任何元素的缺失将导致营销计划的失败。When making decision on marketing, marketing managers have to select a proper marketing mix. According to Boddy (2008), the marketing mix is the mix of decisions about product characteristics, price, communication methods, and distributions drawn on by business marketing managers to competitively position the product in the market. In other words, a marketing mix includes four dimensions: product, price, promotion and place. It involves what products is to be sold to consumers at what prices, by what promotion methods and at what places. Absence of any element will lead to the failure of a marketing plan. 

组织绩效是一个组织的实际产出或结果相比,其预设的目标和目标(爱泼斯坦和曼佐尼,2004)。据李察等。(2009),组织绩效包括三个方面:财务绩效、市场表现和股东回报。通过各种途径,如提高经营管理水平和质量,加强财务和预算控制,创造适当的工作环境和组织文化,并实施正确的营销计划,以增加销售等(爱泼斯坦和曼佐尼,2004)。Organizational performance is an organization’s actual output or results when compared with its preset objectives and goals (Epstein & Manzoni, 2004). According to Richard et al. (2009), organizational performance involves three areas: financial performance, market performance and shareholder return. It can be achieved through a variety of ways such as improving management operations and quality, strengthening finance and budgetary control, creating proper working environment and organizational culture, and implementing right marketing plan to increase sales, etc (Epstein & Manzoni, 2004). 

The case which is studied here is Toyota Motor Corporation, a Japan-based motor vehicle production and sales company (Toyota, 2013a). The firm, established in 1937, had 325,905 employees around the world as of 2012 and achieved consecutive increase of sales of vehicles from 2010 to 2012 (Toyota, 2013a). It is one of the largest automotive manufacturers in terms of sales in the world. 

This essay is on the purpose of examining the use of a marketing mix as a tool and evaluating its effectiveness by taking Toyota as a study case. It is consisted of two parts. Part 1 mainly discusses how the company uses the marketing mix and evaluates its effectiveness. This is the major part of the essay. Part 2 makes a conclusion. 

 

Marketing Mix营销组合
 

Choosing a marketing mix can bring some advantages to a firm. The first is that a marketing mix provides a different perspective for a firm to find out its weaknesses in the four elements and then understand how to distribute their resources in the most appropriately way (Kotler, & Keller, 2006). Another is that it allows a company to promote its products or services effectively in a certain place and in a limited period (Kotler, & Keller, 2006). When choosing a marketing mix, a firm is usually influenced by spending on marketing, needs of the market, actions of competitors, and technology (Kotler, 2001). These factors decide the scale, mode and period of a marketing plan. 

In general, when a marketing mix is used, a firm has to first focus on the products or services which will be sold. Then it needs to price the products and services in an adequate way. The promotional strategies will be determined to market and sell the products to consumers. And finally, a firm decides the places where products and services are distributed most effectively. 


Product 产品
 

A product is the tangible or intangible goods and service offered by a firm (Boddy, 2008). It is the aggregate of such characteristics as appearance, design, colour, utility, quality, after-sale service, and package of the goods or service. Its purpose is to satisfy customer needs in one or some ways. If a product fails to reach this purpose, it is not attractive to customers and comes to decline. Any firm is applying the greatest effort to offer the most attractive products to the market. Toyota is developing high-tech environmentally vehicles which are fueled not by traditional gasoline but gas fuel, electricity, and hydrogen (Toyota, 2013b). Early in 2002, Toyota had produced the Toyota FCHV, the Fuel Cell Vehicle which was driven by high-pressure hydrogen. The new vehicles have become important components of the company’s product mix. By comparison with its traditional vehicles, the new-generation vehicles reduce CO2 emissions and prevent air pollutions. However, a lot of the new products still need further research and development for improvement in quality and use of energy. 

The development of environmentally friendly vehicles originates from the firm’s product strategy of product life cycle. Any product has its life span and experiences four stages: introduction, growth, maturity and decline (Boddy 2008). In general, in introduction stage, the product needs a large number of investments, and in growth and maturity stage, it brings the greatest sales and profits to an organization. While it comes to decline, no profits will be created. Therefore, companies have to constantly develop new products to maintain the sources of profits. Toyota has realized the trend and therefore is investing much in research of new products. As a matter of fact, gasoline-fueled vehicles have experienced a lot of problems, especially the environmental issues. The natural non-renewable resources such as gasoline are limited. And the use of gasoline has caused serious environmental pollutions. The vehicles fueled by gasoline are more likely to move from the current mature stage to the decline stage. Therefore, with the widespread awareness of environmental protection and concerns for the exhaustion of non-renewable resources, Toyota turns to the research and production of new-generation vehicles to ensure sustainable profits in the future. Certainly, the new products are at their introduction stage since more technological problems need to be solved. 

Toyota has made the most it can to improve its new products. It has been focusing on the research of electronic vehicles, hybrid vehicles, and fuel cell vehicles. The next step is to develop plug-in hybrid vehicles and increase fuel efficiency in these new vehicles. Toyota’s efforts have been increasingly recognized by the global consumers. As of March 2013, it has sold 5 million units of hybrid vehicles around the world in the past 15 years, followed by Honda Motor with some 1 million units and Ford Motor with over 200 thousand hybrids (Green Car Congress, 2013). The company has taken the lead and will reap the rewards in the future when the new-generation vehicles are mature in technologies and can be mass produced. To achieve the greatest organizational performance, Toyota has to make breakthroughs in new vehicle technologies.  


Price价格


Price is the exchange value that consumers pay when a good or service is purchased (Boddy, 2008). The value of a goods or service is measured by the price. Customers pay a firm to get the goods or service according to the marked price. Price is an important part of the marketing mix as profits are generated from it. Price is not simply the cost of production, but involves the costs incurred by distribution and promotion, and reasonable profit margin for producers and retailers (Kotler, & Keller, 2006). Toyota’s new Toyota Corolla is priced between $15,338 to $19,045, compared with Honda’s new model 2013 Honda Civic whose prices ranges from $16,892 to $25,095 (Newcars, 2013). This model of Toyota vehicle is priced less than that of Honda’s similar product. The price of Toyota’s third generation Prius in Chinese market was $36,508, compared with $20,900 available in Japan (Lee, 2012). The company applies different pricing strategies in different markets. 

Going rate pricing refers to setting price for a product on the basis of the price of existing products in the market (Kotler, 2001). The strategy is usually adopted when the product does not have great differences from other homogeneous products in utility and quality (Kotler, 2001). Toyota Corolla is close to Honda Civic in utility, quality, and performance. Toyota sets the price for its Corolla by introduction of going rate pricing strategy. As a result, the firm charges its Corolla at a price proximate to Honda Civic. This pricing strategy can help the company attract more customers since the product is at lower prices and with higher quality. Toyota’s brand awareness among the audiences has established its high quality image. Therefore, the going rate pricing and lower price strategies ensure Toyota’s price advantage against its rivals.   

本文标签: 案例研究丰田营销组合Toyota

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