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摘要:本文是一篇留学生人权公约国际法论文,国际人权条约和公约是国家之间的法律文书的结论,它们为政府提供行为的......

Indias Reservations And Declarations To Core Human Rights Conventions International Law Essay
关于印度核心人权公约的保留和声明的国际法论文
 
摘要
 
如果没有了解各种人权公约的保留和声明以及国际人权公约核心,人权研究将在世界上的任何地方都会是不完整的。本文试图揭秘和简化保留和声明的概念,比较它们的不同,测试它们的有效性。它也将提供印度参与制作的国际人权条约的保留和声明的概述。本文将通过展示“文化”的基础上提供核心人权条约的保留和声明的总结,并且是以“普遍性”人权的概念出现。
 
绪论
 
国际人权条约和公约是国家之间的法律文书的结论,它们为政府提供行为的履行标准,也阐述了保护人权国家的任务。国际人权公约的大部分是由联合国起草并且由其专门机构通过谈判应运而生的,与各国政府和与公众的协商,所有都在联合国的观察下完成。
 
Abstract
 
A study of human rights anywhere in the world would be incomplete without understanding the various reservation and declaration to core international human right conventions by the nation. This paper attempts to demystify and simplify concept of reservations and declarations, difference between the two and the test of validity of reservations and declarations. Also it will provide an overview of India’s engagement with international human rights treaties and reservations and declaration made. This paper will concluding by showing that how the reservations and declaration to core human rights treaties on basis of “Culture” are the treat to the concept of “Universality” of human rights.
 
Introduction
 
International human rights treaties and conventions are the legal instrument concluded between states, those provide standards of conduct for governments to fulfill, and also spells out the state’s mandate for protecting human rights. Majority of international human right convention are drafted by the UN and its specialized agencies emerged through negotiations, Consultations with governments and Consultations with the public and all is done under the observation of the United Nations. Once the contents of a treaty are agreed upon by the states, it is then presented to all members of the UN for a formal adoption of the treaty.
 
A treaty is binding in nature among those states that consent to being bound by the treaty. The process of committing to international human rights treaties involves, Signing international human rights treaties, Ratifying/accessing international human rights treaties, Reservations and understandings and Making international human rights treaties part of domestic law. [1]
 
Ratification or accession is a voluntary undertaking by the State to be bound by the terms of the treaty under international law. Though accession has the same effect as ratification, but the process differs. In the case of ratification, the State first signs and then ratifies the treaty. The process for accession has only one step, it is not preceded by an act of signature. If a State chooses to ratify and ‘become party’ to a human rights treaty, that country is obliged to ensure that its domestic legislation complies with the treaty’s provisions and the treaties should be implementing and legislated . Article 253 of the Indian Constitution empowers the union government to legislate with respect to India’s treaty obligations. Reservations and Understandings made by State Parties upon ratification limits states obligations under the terms of the Convention.
 
The law on reservations and declarations
 
Reservations
 
In order to encourage countries to become parties of the treaty, a ‘reservation’ may be made, by which, the state modifies its obligations under the treaty. Reservations can only be made at the time when a country becomes a party to / ratifies the treaty.
 
Article 2.1(d) of Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties defines “reservation” in following words:
 
“A unilateral statement, however phrased or named, made by a State, when signing, ratifying, accepting, approving or acceding to a treaty, whereby it purports to exclude or to modify the legal effect of certain provisions of a treaty in their application to that State”.
 
The definition has two key elements, first is “Unilateral statement, however phrased or named” and second is “Exclude or to modify the legal effect of certain provisions of a treaty”. [2] The first phrase indicates that the substance of the statement matters and determines its nature as a reservation, whereas the second phase states that the reservation is said to be made if the legal effect of the provision is modified. But unilateral statements made by states of primarily political significance or for domestic purpose rather than international significance, do not modify a state’s legal obligation under a treaty. [3]
 
Reservations are intended to modify the legal effect of a treaty or convention. But a reservation that contradicts with the object and purpose of the treaty will not be permitted. This has been clarified by the Human Rights Committee [4] and also in the provisions of some international treaties on human rights. [5]
 
Declaration
 
Declaration is the meaning or interpretation given to a particular provision by the state. [6] It outlines what and how the country understands its legal responsibility under the treaty. [7] A declaration does not modify the country’s legal obligations under the treaty, but merely clarifies the sense a state gives to certain provisions of a treaty. [8]
 
Sometimes statement though termed as a declaration, might have the result of modifying the legal effect of a treaty. In such cases, it can be said that such declarations have the effect of a reservation, and therefore they are governed by the law on reservations contained in the Vienna Convention and in the general principles of international law. [9] When a country makes both reservations and declarations. In such cases, it is to be presumed that a declaration was meant to be an interpretative tool and not a reservation. [10]
 
The Human Rights Committee has indicated the difficulty in distinguishing between reservations and declarations and laid down the following test:
 
“It is not always easy to distinguish a reservation from a declaration as to a State’s understanding of the interpretation of a provision, or from a statement of policy. Regard will be had to the intention of the State, rather than the form of the instrument. If a statement, irrespective of its name or title, purports to exclude or modify the legal effect of a treaty in its application to a State, it constitutes a reservation. Conversely, if a so-called reservation merely offers a State’s understanding of a provision but does not exclude or modify that provision in its application to that State, it is, in reality, not a reservation”. [11]
 
The validity and effect of reservations and declarations
 
Although reservations and declarations are permitted in the international treaty regime, international law stipulates that certain derogations are impermissible in law and in certain situations. The validity and effect of reservations and declarations can be discussed in the following ways.
 
(A) The object and purpose test
 
The landmark advisory opinion of the International Court of Justice, Reservations to the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, laid down that reservations are impermissible if they are against the object and purpose of the treaty. The court, highlighting the importance of compatibility of the reservation or declaration with the object of the treaty, stated, “the character of the multilateral convention, its purpose [...] and adoption are factors which must be considered in determining the [...] possibility of reservation”.
 
(B) The Vienna Convention test
 
Article 21 of the Vienna Convention deals with the legal effects of reservations on the obligations between State parties. Article 21 is as follows:
 
1. A reservation established with regard to another party in accordance with articles 19, 20 and 23:
 
(a) modifies for the reserving State in its relations with that other party the provisions of the treaty to which the reservation relates to the extent of the reservation; and
 
(b) modifies those provisions to the same extent for that other party in its relations with the reserving State.
 
2. The reservation does not modify the provisions of the treaty for the other parties to the treaty inter se.
 
3. When a State objecting to a reservation has not opposed the entry into force of the treaty between itself and the reserving State, the provisions to which the reservation relates do not apply as between the two States to the extent of the reservation.
 
Article 20 requires the acceptance of and objection to reservations to be made in a particular way, while Article 23 specifies particular procedures to be followed while making reservations. The important provision is Article 19 that requires all reservations to be compatible with the object and purpose of the treaty to which such reservations are made.
 
(C) The human rights treaties test
 
 

本文标签: 留学生论文国际法论文人权公约Reservation

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