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摘要:本文是一篇留学生商务谈判论文,谈判是一个过程,因此我们尝试解决意见或利益冲突的分歧。有意或无意地,我们......

现实世界的谈判


谈判是一个过程,因此我们尝试解决意见或利益冲突的分歧。有意或无意地,我们几乎每天都要进行谈判,包括与我们的朋友,家人,同事,上司,生意伙伴,陌生人,有时甚至自己。
 

我们利用谈判来实现我们的目标,实现我们的预期,保护我们的利益,制定出一个妥协或干脆避免与其他人产生麻烦的方案。有时我们代表其他人进行谈判,以解决他们的问题
 

谈判是一个决策或解决问题的过程,涉及双方或多方,因为对立双方的利益,关切,价值观,信仰,情感,理由和期望,分辨率都是不同的,会给他们的未来带来沉重的福祉。简单来说,谈判是一种解决冲突或和解过程,其中各方试图通过各种协商手段、利用有效的战略沟通来实现他们各自的目标。 

Negotiation In The Real World

 

Negotiation is a process, whereby we try to resolve differences of opinion or conflicting interests. Knowingly or unknowingly, we negotiate almost every day, with our friends, family members, colleagues, superiors, business partners, strangers and sometimes even with ourselves.

 

We use negotiation to achieve our goals, realize our expectations, protect our interests, work out a compromise or simply avoid trouble with others. Sometime we negotiate on behalf of others to resolve their problems.

 

Negotiation is a decision making or problem solving process, involving two or more parties, who are in a state of conflict with each other because of opposing interests, concerns, values, beliefs, emotions, justifications and expectations, the resolution or irresolution of which would weigh heavily upon their future and their well being. In simple terms, negotiation is a kind of conflict resolution or a settlement process, in which the parties to the negotiation try to achieve their respective goals by various means, using effective communication and strategy.

 

From a negotiator’s point of view, negotiation is a balancing act, in which emotions need to be managed, conflicting ideas and interests need to be prioritized, solutions need to be found and expectations need to be tempered, before the parties concerned arrive at an acceptable solution. The almost impossible task of people involved in a negotiation process is how to maximize gains and minimize losses for one or more parties, with minimum friction, so that in the end everyone feels comfortable with what has been agreed upon.

 

It is agreed that negotiation is a process and that the first stage of any negotiation, the pre-negotiation stage, is very essential in the planning process for negotiations. But the stage of pre-negotiations, as scholars have come to agree, is in itself also a process.

 

Since the pre-negotiation stage is so crucial there are therefore certain essential steps to proceed on in order to ensure success. While scholars are not agreed on the exact labeling of the different phases of pre-negotiation, nor on how many specific steps there are to be followed, they generally agree on the essential elements that must come into play during pre-negotiations.

 

Peterson Lucas (2001) identified four stages of pre-negotiations. Other writers have classified the processes involved in pre-negotiation into five categories and even some have limited their categories to only three components. Scholars agree that the first step to take in pre-negotiations is for the parties to identify and define the exact nature of the problem and conduct necessary intelligence gathering procedures. This first phase is basically the framing phase .Furthermore, in this first step, parties are able to demonstrate whether or not they are willing to negotiate address the issues .The next step is the formulation aspects where the parties begin to search for available options or alternatives to the issue from the perspective of both parties Each party will have to anticipate the possible options that the other could propose. In the third step there is first some amount of commitment to negotiate among the parties, whether formally or informally based on the information gathered and the alternatives identified. There is following this commitment a concrete agreement or decision to negotiate by both parties. Here the negotiating parties decide on the parameters under which such negotiations would take place. The final step in the pre-negotiation process is the structuring phase where negotiation strategies are developed and plans are made by each side as how best to tackle the actual negotiation .Formal negotiations begin as soon as the parties agree to negotiate and appoint a committee over the negotiations.

 

One important factor that impacts greatly on the process and outcome of negotiations is the individual characteristics of the negotiators. While no scholar has proposed a particular model of the best characteristic traits for a successful negotiator, they have identified several factors that could swing negotiation outcomes either in favor of or against the party for with the individual is negotiating. Among the individual characteristics of negotiators the most commonlyidentified are negotiation experience, age, sex, education and training as well as culture and beliefs. Other variable characteristics could also have an impact on how well a negotiator performs. Irritability, tension, historical relationship between negotiators, physical health among others factors have been noted to affect the negotiation process.

 

All negotiations do not happen alike, as each negotiation has a character of its own, depending upon the people involved and what is at stake. However, broadly speaking, many negotiations confirm to a definite pattern and pass through the following four phases, namely, perception, preparation, resolution and post resolution.

 

Parties

 

Steve Madden is easily America's most successful shoe designer. Considered the fashion footwear mogul of the 21st century, Madden has been responsible for the design and marketing of the company's trendsetting shoes for the past two decades. His vision to give young, fashion forward women a unique way to express their individuality through style resulted in millions of customers worldwide and propelled his designs to the forefront of the fashion industry. In 1990, with a mere $1,100 in his bank account, Madden started crafting shoe designs from his Queens-based factory and the Steve Madden brand was born. With sheer guts, years of experience in the footwear industry, and unique creative designs, Steve Madden formed his own successful enterprise.

 

A year later, Madden introduced a redefined version of platform shoes, resulting in one of the most spectacular success stories in the early 1990's. Inspired by his favorite rock and roll stars of the 1970s, the thick, chunky heel became Steve Madden's signature and a phenomenon in women's shoes.

 

Today, the Steve Madden brand represents a lifestyle. It is about embracing fashion while still maintaining that funky independence that first defined the brand 20 years ago. Expanding now into apparel and other accessories such as dresses, handbags, belts, sun wear, cold weather, outerwear and hosiery, Steve Madden is always looking toward to the future. As 2010 begins, more exciting opportunities are on the horizon including re-packaging, new store design rollout and expansion in global markets.

 

Steve Madden’s main business is the designing, sourcing, marketing, and selling fashionable footwear brands for men women and children. Steve Madden distributes their products through four major venues. The four venues are their online e-commerce website, its retail stores, department stores, and specialty stores. The company has core brands along with updated styles that are constantly being changed in order to capitalize on market trends. Being a trend setter in the shoe market has propelled Steve Madden to a top name brand.

 

In Romania, stevemadden is represented by an outsourcing office and call centre where people across the world, US especially, call to either buy or track their order.

 

UPS

 

Over time, UPS has become a leader in global supply chain management. At UPS, global distribution and logistics involves managing not only the movement of goods, but also the information and funds that move with those goods.

 

UPS customers repeatedly asked to tap into this expertise, which ultimately led to the development of a full-service business. UPS Supply Chain Solutions is a streamlined organization that provides logistics, global freight, financial, and mail services to enhance customers' business performance and improve their global supply chains.

 

Over the past 100 years, UPS has become an expert in transformation, growing from a small messenger company to a leading provider of air, ocean, ground, and electronic services. The most recent public change came in 2003, when the company introduced a new brand mark, representing a new, evolved UPS, and showing the world that its capabilities extend beyond small package delivery. The company went another step further, adopting the acronym UPS as its formal name, another indicator of its broad expanse of services. Ever true to its humble origins, the company maintains its reputation for integrity, reliability, employee ownership, and customer service. For UPS, the future promises even more accomplishments as the next chapter in the company's history is written.  

本文标签: 留学生论文商务谈判Negotiation谈判论文

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