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The First Civilizations In Anatolia Economics Essay
One of the first civilizations in Anatolia was Hittites who came to Center Anatolia from Caucasus at the beginning of 2000 BC and became an empire at 1400 BC, they are well known by the first written agreement in history called Quadesh Agreement at 1280 BC.
Some of them became rich by doing trade with their neighbors Babylon, Amurru, Ugarit and Arzawa. They were brewing beer from barley and wine from grapes as it was written in their tablets. They were using four wheeled oxcarts or donkeys for transportation and using silver sticks as money.
Phrygians came to Anatolia at 800 BC during the Aegean immigrations and founded a government in Gordion (Now Polatli in Ankara).
Phrygians made a living by agriculture and farming. Where they settled down was a meeting point for transportation and trade for Aegean and Asian countries. In the era of King Midas, commerce gained importance and to be able to haline getirmek the country a much secure place, King Midas made peace with the neighboring countries in the west and the east. The road used for trade gained importance for being secure in an era where North Syria, Northwest Iran and East and Center Anatolia as well as Caucasus had challenges to pass their goods to the west. The commerce between civilizations was based on the exchange of goods. The importance of the road became enormous after the Persians made rearrangements and provided even more security so that Persian satraps can transport easily. Thanks to the belirtilen arrangements this road called “King Road” and Phrygian cities became more richer. Their location was very rich in terms of underground resources and they were experts in mining which was a heritage from Hittites. They were using it mostly for making crowns, jewelries and vases. They were very improved in textile, too. They did embroidery on fabric with spun gold which was very popular, expensive and precious mostly used by the high class rather than the rest of the society.
They were equal in terms of value to the silk that is found by Ephesians. Also in antique world, their rugs were very favorable which shows they were also very advanced in weaving. They were using the wool of Ankara goat that is still known as the best quality wool. The traces of their design can still be seen in Turkish carpets.
Having a large scale of forests made Phrygians an expert in furniture making. They were using timber for making houses, tables and coaches. They were called “ horse breeding noble man”
Lydians who came to Anatolia at 1200 BC. established a government in Sard (Now Salihli, Manisa) by King Giges which was destroyed by Persians again in 546 BC. Lydians were actively doing trades. King Road was constructed from Ephesus till Mezopotamia by the order of King Giges. Following these improvements, they found the first metallic money by using silver, copper, nikel, tunc, aliminium and gold and called it “sikke”. They found it as a more useful trade tool in stead of swapping the goods.
During the reign of Kroisos, Lydians were producing perfumes and creams in special ceramic vases called “Lydion” which were the most sought after good in the Aegean marketplace.
Tmolos (Bozdag) Mountains were rich in both natural and also underground resources. Lydians obtained the stones they used in statues and also monuments from the marble quarries here. Also, beside the gold and silver deposits which made them world rich, there were arsenic used in painting of copper and antimony used in cosmetics and drugs on Lydian soil. Lydian blankets, embroidered pillows and carpets were known all over the antique world. It was believed that the Lydians discovered painting wool for the first time. The sulfur deposits, used in softening the wool and especially the thermal waters of Kurflunlu spas of today, rendered the Lydian products without rivals. Hypaipa, which was another Lydian settlement near Birgi on the southern skirts of Bozdag mountains, was famous for the root dyes used in dyeing of fabric and wool.
Sardis or Sardes was the capital city of Lydia, located at the modern Sart, Manisa in Turkey. Sardis was a meeting point of businessmen and passengers since the recreation and accommodation sites were advanced in the city. It is easy to say that their business sense for making money was the first steps of the tourism sector in Western Anatolia.
Ionia was a bridge between east and west since they located at the end of the commerce road of Front Asia which was the Aegean cities like Efes, Milet, Izmir, Foca, Bodrum. They were advanced in sea commerce. They were carrying goods to many other Mediterranean ports.
They were the most developed civilizations established in Anatolia as a result of this location. Their well known scientists are Hipocrates, Pisagor, Heraklit, Diojen. Homeros in poem and Heredot in history was just some of them .
This Iron Age Kingdom was located in Eastern Anatolia founded by Asian Asian origin Hurrians. Their capital was Tu?pa (Now called Van).
Loots were the reason that the importance of trade increased in their economic activities. To supply the needs of the army, they were advanced in blacksmithing and carpentry. They were using paper money while trading with Turkistan and China. They established commercial firms. They increased the usage of pack trails.
At the beginning of 11th century, Selcuklu Empire established in Turkistan, even before a century began to govern the lands reaching to the meditarrenean Sea. Total life of Selcuklu is 300 years which 223 of it was in Anatolia. (1075-1308)
In this era, Kervan ticareti in the Silk Road gained activity which starts from Antakya and goes through Iran, Afganistan, Pamir and reaches Dayang area of China.
In 12th century, Seljucks were the emperors of Istanbul-Konya-Tebriz commercial road. The most important commercial centers of this era were the capital city Konya, Aksaray, Kayseri, Sivas, Erzurum, Diyarbak?r, Harput, Malatya , K?r?ehir, Antalya and Ankara. As Barthold claims, “Civilization spreaded among tribes thanks to the success of Seljuc Turc Empire which arose in Middle Asia. In their era, they continiusly developed the city life, commerce and art. This financial formation called bazaar, did not arise in one step in Seljuks. At first, “?er?i” who is a mobile seller, opens a retail store and became permanent. Secondly, Cerci works both as a mobile and based (settled) seller. If the business of cerci goes well, other seller comes and open stores near by and that way the stores multiply. Stores heap together according to goods they are selling. Third step, is to open stores as a line according to the specialty of a good. Some examples can be, the new and the old bazaars of Konya in 13th century. When the street seems inadequate and parallel to that the development of safety resulted in opening stores.
The oldest caravan road known in West Asia is the Silk Road. According to M. Cerasi who was born in Istanbul, the structure of the bazaar was;
Bazaar was more than just a place to shop, it was a place of production and has a huge economic value. In this model before capitalism it was hard to distinguish bazaar’s financial and factorel values from the cultural ones.
In Anatolia there were more than 100 covered bazaars but 4 of them were standing out. The covered bazaar called “bedesten” was first established in Bursa in 1400, then in 1402 in Tire, in 1421 in Edirne and finally in 1460 in Istanbul Cevahir.
There were three main objects establishing these bazaars:
To arrange the trading
To improve the manufacturing and demand
To prevent monopoly caused by stockpiling.
Bursa Bedesten (Kapalicarsi) is the first example of Ottoman Covered Bazaar established in Anatolia in 13th century. Maturation of the system continues until 15th century. With Grand Bazaar in Istanbul of Fatih the conqueror, the grandbazaar model is olusmak. At the end of 19th century, Hans were not preferred as a konaklama. They were replaced by hotels. The first European style hotels were opened in Beyoglu in Istanbul. The most important one among all was Pera Palace which was designed as a part of the Orient Express.
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