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摘要:本文是一篇关于中国和俄罗斯森林资源管理的case study。森林资源是林地及其所生长的森林有机体的总称。这里以林木......

Forest Resource in Russia and China

森林资源是林业生产的物质基础。森林资源的现状是衡量林业工作有效性的重要标准。由于人类行为以及自然因素对于它的影响,森林资源面临着动态的变化。众所周知,尽快日常的措施被采取来增加人们对环境生态系统保护的意识,但是世界森林资源在逐步减少,对环境生态系统造成了毁灭性影响。森林资源管理开始变为一个重要的研究课题。因此加强管理、监督森林资源、建立一个科学体系以及有效的管理系统就显得非常有意义。如按字面意义上来说,管理森林资源是决策的制定以及森林产业的组织行为,培养、更新以及森林资源的申请程序可以通过计划、控制、调节、检阅和监督来完成。这个报告的主要目的是确立和比较中国与俄罗斯关于大面积森林资源管理的本质,包括森林资源的组成,有效措施和制定出有效管理它的解决方案,并总结出相应的失败原因。最后,报告将讨论对森林资源进行更好管理的一些潜在措施。


The forest resource is the material basis of forestry production. The status of forest resources is the most important symbol to measure the effectiveness of forestry work. Due to the impact of human activities and natural factors, forest resources are always in dynamic change. As is known, there is a worldwide forest decrease, which has devastating effects on the environment ecosystem although regulatory measures have been taken to accentuate the significance of environment ecosystem preservation. So management of forest resource becomes an important researching topic .Therefore, it is necessary to strengthen the management and supervision of forest resources and the establishment of a scientific and effective management system. Literally speaking, management of forest resource is decision-making and organized activities in forest protection, cultivating, updating and application of forest resources through planning, control, adjustment, inspection and supervision .The main purpose of this report is to identify and compare the nature of management of forest resource in Russia and China where lies large areas of forest resource , introduce the components of forest resources , probe into the specific means of management of forest resource, evaluate the measure and point out effective management solutions and failing reasons . At last potential efforts for better management of forest resource is discussed.
 
Forest management has been high-profile since ancient times. However, low level of technology and inadequate management do not have access to effective development and use of forest resources although there are an abundance of forest resources. Also improper processing and utilization of forest resources to some extent damages the forest ecosystem on the grounds that different ways of forest resources management should be applied in different regions, nation’s even countries. So precise analysis of forest resource management requires that we first recognize the classification of forest resources as well as the characteristics of different categories then applies different management methods to different places.

Forest resource is a general term for woodlands and the organism that habits in living in forests. It mainly refers to wood resources and also included those habiting in woods and understory plants, wildlife, soil microbes and other resources, such as natural ones. Forestlands include woodlands, open forest lands, shrub lands, cutover lands, burn areas, lands for tree nursery and lands for forest according to state planning.
  

764 million hectares of forest lies in Russia, which is indicated in FAO’s State of the world’s forest 1999. However, deforestation happens and becomes worse.

Form the figure 1, there is a trend of decrease of forest rate from 1650to 2000 although an increase existed from 1930 to 2000. Almost 55 percent of land was covered in 1680. Since then, cover rate of forest declined sharply and decreased to 25 percent, the lowest percent in history. Form 1930 to 2000, cover rate increased to almost 40 percent. It is distinct that large areas of forest have been cleared, a showcase of temporary upswing of over rate fails to compensate the damaged forest.

According to the dates and information compelled in 1981, 155,277,000 hectares of forest land exist in China, namely only 12 percent of area is covered with forests and China is ranked in the world (Repetto and Gillis,1988). Compared with the expansive territory and large population, the forest resource is small and every person hold 0.22 hectares on average. Here are some important figures of land available for forest use in Table 1, from which we find that there is few lands suitable for forest us. Inner Mongolia is ranked first in the percentage of total forest land with 16.51 percent, not half of the whole areas of 44,094.0 hectares. It is reasonable to arrive at the conclusion that China is racked with a severe shortage of forest resource. From Table1, Beijing with 627.9 hectares is ranked 26th and there is only 0.23 percent of the total forest land. As is known, as the political, economic and cultural center, Beijing’s economic development entails less forest land and more lands are exploited to construct roads, household and department stores. China is experiencing a full-blown crisis of forest resource. Some experts hold that new plantation may make up for the shortage , especially that in the Great Leap, when 80% of the forest was damaged in varying degrees by 1999.Compared with that in 60s ,the forest coverage rate decreased by 35.8 points, forest stock deduced by 281,670cubic meters. (Jianguo, 2010) However, new dates show that the damaged forest area will be compensating by 2040(Richardson, 2000).We conclude that Russia and China share the forest resources decline.

The reasonable management of forest resources means total adaptability and effectives. It is conducive to forest ecological balance with the economic, ecological and cultural interests taken into account and also it does services to contemporary people and future generations. (Duinker and Trevisan, 2003) In spatial view, a suitable scenario to mitigate deforestation, a perennial problem throughout the whole world should be accommodated with a certain country because difference exists and one-sizes-fits all model should be avoided. In temporal view, management style should combine the national background, for instance, political situation, economic policy and leaders in helm of the government because maximum benefits entail different management policies in different period.
 

The effective operation of management of forest resources requires all aspects of forest-related works. The basic ones are forest loggers whose activities are arduous and need uncanny ability to climb, cut and lift the timbers. Their occupation has large-scale effects on forest management in that their felling techniques determine the degree of damage to the trees and only trees with minimal damage and perfect cutting predicate lucrative profits (Department and Statistics Bureau, 2010). So it becomes important to train loggers and improve skills.

本文标签: Forest ResouRussia and C

[六级作文essay怎么写]俄罗斯与中国的森林资源分析Case Study Essayhttps://www.0592w.com/lunwengs/15843.html

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