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First, the audit risk and its causes.
(A) the definition of audit risk.
British "Independent Auditing Standard No. 9 - Internal Control and Audit Risk"
The audit risk is defined as: accounting statements free of material misstatement or omission, CPA audit post inappropriate audit opinion possibilities. The audit risk and the risk constituted by the two aspects: one is that the financial statements at fair auditors acceptable, but actually free of material misstatement of the financial statements, but the risk; hand the audit staff that the financial statements free of material misstatement and not accepted, but the risk is actually fair.
(Two) the causes of audit risk.
1, the formation of external causes of audit risk.
(A) the economic environment of audit risk. Market diversification of economic sectors, Pishendanwei behavioral instability, such as corporate restructuring, mergers, restructuring, so that the audit staff of the enterprise is difficult to fully reflect and evaluate, to obtain the correct conclusions difficult, thus increasing the audit risk.
(2) the social environment of audit risk. As the internal control system is imperfect or ineffective implementation, but they can not perceive the auditor risks posed.
Even if the auditors confirmed the audited entity's internal control system is unreasonable or out of control on the key aspects of its proposed amendments can really fit the audited entity's business activities, will form a modified risk.
(3) the impact of the legal environment. The law is the basis of the audit work, or if the legal system is not complete without derivatives connected, the auditors will lose uniform standards, increase the risk opportunities. In recent years, audit staff in the implementation of the audit business, due to various reasons triggered lawsuits emerging, auditing standards in practitioners' due professional honor angry "and" appropriate vocational concern "has become the focus of the legal profession. Future with the changing market environment and the legal construction of further advance, audit staff will become increasingly risk increases.
(4) Accounting information systems widely used.
In the computerized accounting information system, Pishendanwei records have been turned into economic activity by a computer program instructions according to auto-complete, but stored in the computer accounting information can easily be modified, deleted or transferred, and no obvious signs of and, thus, increase the audit risk.
2, the formation of the internal audit risk reasons.
(A) the professional auditing standards and quality is not high. Audit work is a professional and highly technical profession, so the request is correspondingly higher. If the auditor's responsibility is not strong enough, professional and ethical standards is poor, then the audit quality will also be affected, then it will cause a lot of errors in the work, and the formation of audit risk.
(2) Auditors auditing technology used behind. Modern audit approach emphasizes audit costs and audit risk equalization, using the audit procedures to allow certain audit risk is a necessary prerequisite. Auditors must seek a balance efficiency and effectiveness of the audit. They focus on the audit on various important components, extract all part of the business to carry out the review, and the samples taken and their representatives overall objective facts and subjective conclusions that may exist between certain deviations, thus forming a certain audit risk.
(3) Pishendanwei weak internal control mechanisms. Exists between the internal control and audit is a interdependent and mutually reinforcing internal relations. Currently, the UK has many of the audited entity's internal control system is not good, thus affecting their economic activity accounting statements recorded authenticity, legitimacy, and thus increase the audit risk.
(4) the complexity of the object to be audited. The increasing complexity of the modern market economy, enterprises in order to compete in an increasingly fierce market seeking development, transactions carried out will become more complex, which makes improper accounting records increases the likelihood of the business, and thus audit risk, the audit findings with the actual situation deviate possibility will be higher.
Second, there is the main part of audit risk.
(A) the audit engagement letter signed aspects of risk.
Audit engagement letter signed, is the principal and the principal agency relationship between the rights and obligations of a clear legal process, engagement letter once identified, will be binding on both parties. Under normal circumstances, in addition to old customers, accounting firms audited entity's internal financial systems and internal control systems are sound and effective do not understand, and these aspects of the situation is precisely the auditors and CPAs can draw objective, true audit findings, published objective, factual basis for the audit opinion. Signed engagement letter link is generated audit risk at source. (Two) the risk of audit sampling.
Certified Public Accountant in the audit process correctly apply audit sampling method can not only improve audit efficiency, but also to ensure audit quality, audit risk prevention. Because CPA during the audit can not cover everything, and each economic issues in financial accounting reflect on the true or not, but also related to the corporate financial statements objectivity, legitimacy and authenticity, which has a "fair" in problem. To achieve fair level is not easy, the error must be controlled within a tolerable range. This requires the sample to have reliability, composition, amount, effective samples to maximize the overall degree of reflection of the sample.
(Three) the audit evidence links exposure.
Audit evidence is the formation and support the audit opinion. Error, the distortion that the audit evidence necessary to draw the wrong conclusions of the audit, not comprehensive, sufficient audit evidence is bound to draw one-sided, unreliable audit conclusions.
(Four) audit report links risk.
The outcome of the audit report, the audit also was investigated for responsibility and commitment audit risk audit specific basis. Sampling in accordance with the trial, evidence of the formation of working papers made, it seems audit risk should exist in the audit report before the normal accounting procedures and audit reports are based on logical thinking audit engagement letter provides the content and requirements, according to the audit link. In fact, writing the audit report itself is not only risky, but also an important part of risk prevention.
Third, the audit risk prevention and control.
(A) to strengthen the audit team building, improve their own quality audit staff.
The level of audit risk, to a large extent depend on the level of audit staff personal qualities, so auditors should strengthen risk awareness, seek truth from facts, objective and fair, and establish strict pragmatic work style, a serious and responsible treatment of each audit business, in strict accordance with the independent auditing standards to ensure audit quality, reduce audit risk.
(Two) optimization audit approach.
In the method, it can introduce the most advanced risk-oriented risk-based audit model in order to ensure the quality of the premise, co-ordinate the use of various methods. If law refers to the audit staff review of the relevant written information through careful observation and reading, to identify the relevant information, as reflected in its economic activity is reasonable, legitimate and effective for a variety of information in writing checks. It is one of the most basic technical methods, but law is not an independent review of audit methodology, the use of reviewing laws often only provide an audit trail, in order to better gather audit evidence, review the law and must be used in combination with other audit methods. Cross using traditional methods to obtain audit evidence audit, the audit evidence obtained so regardless of quantity but also from the quality are even more fully, to reduce audit risk.
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