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摘要：提供留学生成本管理论文核心部分范例-Management Technique- Target Costing-a cost management technique used by Japanese accountants to en......
3.3.1 Literature Review
Target Costing (TC) was created by Toyota in the 1960s (Kato, 1993; Carr and Ng, 1995), which emerged as a cost management technique used by Japanese accountants to enable better decision-making, stimulating employees to follow long-term strategies (Gagne and Discenza, 1995, p.16-22). ‘…target costing is a profit planning, not a cost system, to satisfy customer and the profit generation to the company given the market requirements’ (Yoshikawa et al., 1994, p.53-64).
In addition, Target Costing must be viewed as a broader concept that includes TC as well as other techniques such as Kaizen and FCA (Yoshikawa et al., 1995, p.415-432). Rabino (2001, p.76) stated that in TC systems:
‘Costs are managed in three distinct ways…. Firstly, the mix of products that are manufactured and sold is strictly controlled by upper level management through the efforts of a multi-disciplinary team. Secondly, the costs of new products are reduced through the techniques of target costing and value engineering [which implies FCA]. Finally, the costs of existing products are reduced through the Kaizen system.’
It should be highlighted that these techniques associated with TC are examples of continuous improvement. According to Kato (1993), Ewert and Ernst (1999, p.23-49), ‘…target costing is a technique for managing costs during the design stage, little can be done to improve these elements once product design has been set…’. However, Kaizen, which follows TC procedures, means cost reductions in the manufacturing and delivery processes (McMann and Nanni, 1995; Lee and Monden, 1996). Dekker and Smidt (2003) and Tani et al. (1994) show that the product development and design departments are major users of target costing.
Furthermore, Cooper and Slagmulder (1999) define target costing as a technique to manage future profits in the organization, as ‘Target cost = Target price – target margin’ (Cooper and Slagmulder, 1997). If estimated actual cost is in excess of target cost, managers should investigate ways of driving down the actual cost to target. Of which, the iterative process involves Value engineering (VE) and Functional cost analysis (FCA) (Cooper and Slagmulder, 1997; Ansari et al., 1997; Yoshikawa et al., 1994).
In the US, the Institute of Management Accountants (IMA) (2003) found that 26% of its member firms employed TC. Likewise, 38% of Australia’s largest manufacturing firms (Chenhall and L.Smith, 1998), 50% of Danish firms (Israelsen et al., 1996), and 59.4% of firms listed on the Amsterdam Stock Exchange (Dekker and Smidt, 2003) had adopted TC. The Research Group of Nanjing University (2001) report that there are nearly 51.4% enterprises adopting target costing in China currently.
According to Horngren (2005, p.381), ‘…target cost per unit is often lower than the existing full product cost per unit…. to achieve the target cost per unit and the target profit per unit, the organization must improve products and processes…’.
Based on the research of Crow (1999), reducing indirect cost is the most essential for reducing overall cost. Since a significant portion is indirect cost in the catering industry, the company should also address it by examining these costs, re-engineering indirect business processes and minimizing non-value-added costs.
220.127.116.11 Value Engineering (VE)
Value engineering is a systematic evaluation of all aspects of the value-chain, with the objective of reducing costs while satisfying customer needs. Incorporation of VE and target costing would have a direct impact on the economic result of a company. VE and target-costing are complementary processes, because while one allows the identification of where cost reduction could be achieved, the other shows the target to be achieved to guarantee the long-term profitability plan of a company.
The work flow of Validation-VE should follow a cycle of five stages, according to Figure 3-3-1 (Ibusuki and Kaminski, 2003), functional analysis/target-cost – initial project – prototype construction – quality and cost estimation – VE study, which is repeated until quality and target-cost have been achieved. However, unless managed properly, value engineering and target costing can have undesired consequences (Cooper and Slagmulder, 1997).
Figure 3-3-1，Flow chart for Validation-VE
18.104.22.168 Functional Cost Analysis (FCA) and Kaizen
FCA is well explained in Yoshikawa et al. (1994, p.63) which is used to help designers to find feasible technical solutions that fit the target cost: ‘functional cost analysis … [is] … a powerful technique to cost management.’
FCA uses cost tables to identify product costs according to their specifications because different product requirements imply different process times and changes in components. Cost tables represent the firm’s cost experience, ‘… cover a wide range of design possibilities and include cost information both internal and external to the organization.’ (Yoshikawa et al., 1995, p.417)
Furthermore, Kaizen involves several procedures that allow reducing costs via continuous improvements during the production phase of the product life cycle. Kaizen asks for the involvement of everyone. Imai introduced the term Kaizen in the 1980s, defining it as an ongoing improvement involving everyone from top management to operators.
22.214.171.124 Role of Target costing
TC requires formal procedures to determine target prices and assess customer requirements. This forces firms to be specific about what customers want and the prices they are willing to pay (CIMA, 2005). ‘A competitive product must address factors such as cost, performance, schedule and quality’(Lynn et al., 1999, p.319-326). Furthermore, managing costs during the development stage is usually easier and cheaper than after the product is introduced (Ulrich and Eppinger, 2000).
Dekker and Smidt (2003) emphasize that ‘TC plays an important role in realizing conflicting objectives which need to be balanced, optimizing the relationships between material, parts, and the production process, and balancing quality, functionality, and cost’. In fact, TC represents a valuable tool to guide the development of new products enhancing their success when introduced in the market. TC allows companies to design products competitively, guides and disciplines the development of new products and augments the probability of success. It always focuses on price, quality and functionality which are the three elements comprising the ‘survival triplet’ (Cooper, 1996) (Figure 3-3-2). In addition, the use of TC represents a strong commitment that results in continuous efforts on cost-reduction initiatives.
Figure 3-3-2, Survival Triplet
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