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摘要:本文是一篇留学生作业运用了PEST Analysis,也就是PEST分析法的写作内容。通过政治,经济,社会和技术这四个环境因素......

PEST分析法写作范文-印度银行业的PEST分析。本文是一篇留学生作业运用了PEST Analysis,也就是PEST分析法的写作内容。通过政治,经济,社会和技术这四个环境因素对印度的银行业进行分析。小编之前给各位讲述过PEST Analysis的具体写作方法,为了能让广大留学生们能更直观的了解PEST分析法怎么写,这次就提供一篇具体的PEST Analysis范文供各位参考,下面就来一起看一下:


PEST分析法

HISTORY OF BANKING SECTOR 银行业发展史
印度第一家银行成立于1786年,从1786年至今,印度银行体系的发展历程可分为三个阶段。
The first bank in India was established in 1786.from 1786 till now ,the journey of Indian banking system can be segregated into three distint phases .
Early phase from 1786 to 1969 of Indian banks 1786-1969年印度银行业发展的早期阶段
Nationalisation of Indian Banks and up to 1991 prior to Indian banking sector Reforms. 印度银行国有化,直至1991年印度银行业改革之前
New phase of Bankig System after banking sector reforms.银行业改革后银行体系的新阶段
STEPS TAKEN BY THE GOVERNMENT 政府采取的步骤
以下是印度政府为监管国内银行机构而采取的措施
The following are the steps taken by the Government of India to Regulate Banking Institutions in the Country
1949: Enactment of Banking Regulation Act
1955: Nationalisation of State Bank of India.
1959: Nationalisation of SBI subsidiaries.
1961: Insurance cover extended to deposits
1969: Nationalisation of 14 major banks.
1971: Creation of credit guarantee corPoration
1975: Creation of regional rural banks.
1980: Nationalisation of seven banks with deposits over 200
银行的商业作用不仅限于银行业,还包括:
The commercial role of banks is not limited to banking, and includes:
issue of banknotes
processing of payments by way of telegraphic transfer, EFTPOS, internet
banking or other means
Issuing bank drafts and bank cheques
Accepting money on term deposit
lending money by way of overdraft, installment loan or otherwise
providing documentary and standby letters of credit (tradefinance),guarantees,
performance bonds, securities underwriting commitments and other forms of off- balance sheet exposures
safekeeping of documents and other items in safe deposit boxes
currency exchange
Acting as a ‘financial supermarket’ for the sale, distribution or brokerage, with or without advice, of insurance, unit trusts and similar financialproducts
ROLE OF BANKS 银行的作用
Capital formation
Monetization
Innovations
Finance for priority sectors
Provision for medium and long term finance
Cheap money policy
Need for a sound banking system
FUNCTIONS OF A BANK 银行的职能
Accepting Deposits from public/others ( deposit).
Lending money to public ( loan).
Transferring money from one place to another (remittances).
Credit Creation.
Acting as trustees.
Keeping valuable in safe custody
Investment decisions and analysis.
Government business,
Other type of lending and transaction
TYPES OF BANKING 银行业务类型
Central bank
Commercial bank
Industrial bank
Agricultural bank
Foreign Exchange bank
Indigenous bank
Rural bank
Co-operative bank

BANKING SECTOR REFORMS 银行业改革
991年,印度储备银行提议印度储备银行前行长纳拉西姆哈姆(Narasimham)负责审查金融体系。与金融体系的结构、组织和运作有关的方面。德纳拉西姆委员会向财政部长曼莫汉·辛格提交了一份关于银行业改革的报告,报告强调了印度银行体系的弱点,并根据《巴塞尔准则》提出了改革措施。            
五年内将法定流动比率(SLR)降至25%。             
逐步降低现金储备率(CRR)。逐步取消定向信贷计划和重新界定优先领域             
放松利率管制,以反映新兴市场的情况             
提高银行资产负债表的透明度并进行更多披露            
 设立专门规则,加快贷款回收进程。             
银行体系的重组,国家银行部分向国际银行转型,部分向国有银行转型。
In 1991, the RBI had proposed to from the committee chaired by M. Narasimham, former RBI Governor in order to review the Financial System viz. aspects relating to the Structure, Organisations and Functioning of the financial system. TheNarasimham Committee report, submitted to the finance minister, Manmohan Singh, on the banking sector reforms highlighted the weaknesses in the Indian banking system and suggested reform measures based on the Basle norms..The main recommendations of the Committee were.
Reduction of Statutory Liquidity Ratio (SLR) to 25 per cent over a period of five years.
Progressive reduction in Cash Reserve Ratio (CRR). Phasing out of directed credit programmes and redefinition of the priority sector
Deregulation of interest rates so as to reflect emerging market conditions
Imparting transparency to bank balance sheets and making more disclosures
Setting up of special rule to speed up the process of recovery of loan.
Restructuring of the banking system, national bank to international bank some and nationalised some other bank.
Abolition of branch licensing
Liberalising the policy with regard to allowing foreign banks to open offices in India
Rationalisation of foreign operations of Indian banks
Giving freedom to individual banks to recruit officers
Inspection by supervisory authorities based essentially on the internal audit and inspection reports
Ending duality of control over banking system by Banking Division and RBI
PEST ANALYSIS
(P)OLITICAL/ LEGAL ENVIROMENT 政治/法律环境
政府和印度储备银行的政策影响着银行业。有时,政府会考虑某个政党的政治优势,宣布一些措施来保护他们的利益,比如免除短期农业贷款,以吸引农民的选票。这样一来,银行的利润就会受到影响。合作社中的多家银行都是由政客们开办和经营的。他们利用这些银行谋取利益。有时政府会任命不同的银行董事长。印度储备银行根据本国的现状制定了各种政策,以便更好地控制银行。
Government and RBI policies affect the banking sector. Sometimes looking into the political advantage of a particular party, the Government declares some measures to their benefits like waiver of short-term agricultural loans, to attract the farmer’s votes. By doing so the profits of the bank get affected. Various banks in the cooperative sector are open and run by the politicians. They exploit these banks for their benefits. Sometimes the government appoints various chairmen of the banks. Various policies are framed by the RBI looking at the present situation of the country for better control over the banks.
(E)CONOMICAL ENVIROMENT 经济环境
银行业源远流长,现代商业银行业源远流长。在印度,银行业一直以这样或那样的形式存在。现在的银行业时代可以认为始于1809年根据政府宪章成立孟加拉银行,政府参与股本。阿拉哈巴德银行成立于1865年,旁遮普国家银行成立于1895年,因此,印度储备银行每年都会宣布其6个月政策,并相应地实施各种措施和利率,对银行业产生影响。此外,工会预算还影响到银行业,通过给予某些优惠或便利来提振经济。如果在预算内鼓励储蓄,那么更多的存款将被吸引到银行,反过来银行可以向农业部门和工业部门放贷更多的资金,因此,如果放宽外国直接投资的限制,那么更多的外国直接投资将通过银行渠道进入印度。
Banking is as old as authentic history and the modern commercial banking are traceable to ancient times. In India, banking has existed in one form or the other from time to time. The present era in banking may be taken to have commenced with establishment of bank of Bengal in 1809 under the government charter and with government participation in share capital. Allahabad bank was started in the year 1865 and Punjab national bank in 1895, and thus, others followed Every year RBI declares its 6 monthly policy and accordingly the various measures and rates are implemented which has an impact on the banking sector. Also the Union budget affects the banking sector to boost the economy by giving certain concessions or facilities. If in the Budget savings are encouraged, then more deposits will be attracted towards the banks and in turn they can lend more money to the agricultural sector and industrial sector, therefore,booming the economy If the FDI limits are relaxed, then more FDI are brought in India through banking channels.
(S)OCIAL ENVIROMENT 社会环境
在银行国有化之前,它们的控制权掌握在私人党派手中,只有大企业和社会的污水部门从印度的银行业中受益。1969年,政府将14家银行收归国有。为了适应银行业的社会发展,有必要在民主政治制度中迅速取得符合社会正义的经济进步,这一制度不受法律的支配,机会对所有人开放。因此,考虑到国家和社会目标,银行家们被指示帮助社会中经济较弱的部分,并以灵活和自由的态度向所有经济部门提供基于需求的融资。现在银行向农民、职业妇女、专业人士、贸易商提供各种贷款,也向学生提供教育贷款、住房贷款、消费贷款,拥有大客户或大公司的银行必须为其客户提供个性化银行服务,因为这些客户不相信为了完成工作而四处奔波和排队等候。银行家们还必须为这些客户提供特殊的准备金,有时还要提供食物和聚会等福利。但银行并不介意因为这些客户为银行带来的业务而承担这些成本。银行改变了印度的人类生活文化,使人们的生活更加轻松。
Before nationalization of the banks, their control was in the hands of the private parties and only big business houses and the effluent sections of the society were getting benefits of banking in India. In 1969 government nationalized 14 banks. To adopt the social development in the banking sector it was necessary for speedy economic progress, consistent with social justice, in democratic political system, which is free from domination of law, and in which opportunities are open to all. Accordingly, keeping in mind both the national and social objectives,bankers were given direction to help economically weaker section of the society and also provide need-based finance to all the sectors of the economy with flexible and liberal attitude. Now the banks provide various types of loans to farmers, working women, professionals, and traders.They also provide education loan to the students and housing loans, consumer loans, etc.Banks having big clients or big companies have to provide services like personalized banking to their clients because these customers do not believe in running about and waiting in queues for getting their work done. The bankers also have to provide these customers with special provisions and at times with benefits like food and parties. But the banks do not mind incurring these costs because of the kind of business these clients bring for the bank. Banks have changed the culture of human life in India and have made life much easier for the people.
(T)ECHNOLOGICAL ENVIROMENT 技术环境
技术环境在银行内部控制中起着非常重要的作用,计算机、电信等技术的最新发展促使银行业者将分支银行的概念转变为异地银行。ATM和网上银行的使用使得“随时随地的银行”成为可能。自动录音机现在可以回答简单的查询,货币记账机使这项工作更容易,自助柜台也得到了鼓励。信用卡设施鼓励了一个无现金社会的时代。如今,万事达卡和维萨卡是世界上最流行的两种信用卡。这些银行现在已经开始发行用于支付的智能卡或借记卡。这些也被称为电子钱包。一些银行还通过电信设施和计算机技术,利用安装在客户家中的终端,开始了家庭银行业务,他们可以查询余额、获取对账单、指示资金转移,通过ECS,我们可以直接将股息和利息存入我们的账户,避免延迟或失去职位的机会。如今,银行也将短信和互联网作为主要的促销工具,并为客户提供极大的便利。例如,短信功能通过简单的文字信息从您的手机发送。银行会识别这些信息,为您提供所需的信息。所有这些技术变革都迫使银行家们采用基于客户的方法,而不是基于产品的方法。
Technology environment plays a very important role in bank’s internal control.The latest developments in technology like computer and telecommunication have promoted the bankers to change the concept of branch banking to anywhere banking. The use of ATM and Internet banking has allowed ‘anytime, anywhere banking’ facilities. Automatic voice recorders now answer simple queries, currency accounting machines makes the job easier and self-service counters are now encouraged. Credit card facility has encouraged an era of cashless society. Today MasterCard and Visa card are the two most popular cards used world over. The banks have now started issuing smartcards or debit cards to be used for making payments. These are also called as electronic purse. Some of the banks have also started home banking through telecommunication facilities and computer technology by using terminals installed at customers home and they can make the balance inquiry, get the statement of accounts, give instructions for fund transfers, etc. Through ECS we can receive the dividends and interest directly to our account avoiding the delay or chance of loosing the post. Today banks are also using SMS and Internet as major tool of promotions and giving great utility to its customers. For example SMS functions through simple text messages sent from your mobile. The messages are then recognized by the bank to provide you with the required information. All these technological changes have forced the bankers adopt customer-based approach instead of product-based approach.
 
PEST分析法写作范文也就是上面所展示的全部内容就是一篇留学生作业所运用到的PEST Analysis ,是国外大学比较常见的一种分析方法,对于初到国外留学或者第一次接触到PEST Analysis的学生们而言是一件比较困难的事,希望本次提供的PEST Analysis范文,结合之前的PEST Analysis的写作技巧,能顺利帮助留学生们顺利完成任务。本站提供各国作业PEST Analysis写作指导服务,如有需要可咨询本平台。

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