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摘要:英国作业网专业提供英国Eassy Referencing格式指导,如英国索尔福德大学Eassy Referencing写作指导范本(An Eassy Guide to Ref......

An Easy Guide to Referencing for Academic Work

Rita Newton, Marcus Ormerod
英国Eassy Referencing格式SURFACE Inclusive Design Research Centre,
The University of Salford, UK.

1. Introduction

Correct referencing is important in academic work: for example, an assignment at undergraduate level, a doctoral thesis or a paper for publication in an academic journal.

In academic writing you are required to demonstrate the body of knowledge on which your work is based and acknowledge sources of information and ideas. Failing to reference the work of others is considered by academics to be an act of intellectual theft.

Whenever you use the work of others to underpin your work then you should reference the source of it. The exceptions to this are areas of common knowledge and ideas, or quotations, that are not attributable to any one source, such as sayings and folklore. Since providing relevant references gives increased credibility to the arguments you develop in your own work it is useful to reference frequently in academic writing.

Plagiarism

Lack of referencing could be interpreted as plagiarism of other people’s material. Plagiarism is normally taken to be:

1. The inclusion of quotations from published works, the source of which is not properly acknowledged;

2. The inclusion of passages which are closely based (in summary or paraphrase) on published material, the source of which is not properly acknowledged;

3. The inclusion of material which is identical, or virtually identical, with that of another person, including another student past or present, unless this method has been agreed by a subject tutor for a reason particular to the coursework

Plagiarism is a very serious offence in the academic world and normally carries severe penalties, and could result in expulsion from the academic institution.

The Harvard System of referencing

The Guide sets out what is known as the Harvard system of referencing, which is one of the two main referencing systems often used. This is sometimes referred to as the Author and Date system.

The other main systems are the British system and Running Notes. The British system can also be known as the Book or Numeric system. The British system relies on a numbering system with the use of Latin terms to reduce the amount of repetition of references. Each time a work is cited in the main text the reference to it has to be placed in the references section. This differs to the Harvard system in which references are only provided once alphabetically at the end off the work. Running notes uses numbers in square brackets placed in the text which correspond to a list either at the end of the chapter, or the end of the work, where each number contains the full reference. Again this requires the same reference to be repeated in the list each time it is used in the main text.

It is usually easy to adapt the Harvard system to comply with the British system, or running notes. The British system and running notes are preferred by readers of books as the references are least likely to interrupt the flow of reading of the main text, but it does increase the work for the author in producing the extensive references at the end. However, the British system or running notes are not often used by researchers who favour the Harvard system because it highlights the authors referred to in the main text so increasing recognition for those cited, additionally it is easier to produce an alphabetical list of references at the end. Neither the Harvard or British system use footnotes or endnotes, as these are used for adding comments at the bottom of the page, or end of chapter, that forms additional information for the reader about a certain point in the main text. It may well be that a footnote, or endnote, contains a reference, or is based on a reference to the work of others, and should follow the system of referencing used throughout the rest of that text.

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