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时间:2021-10-28 21:24 来源: Essay代写

摘要:在中国,购买力平价被移植的那段时间,当时有一个快速的经济发展基础设施的巨大需求在20世纪80年代。它已被应用......

In China, PPP was transplanted, during the time when there was a huge need for infrastructure for rapid economy development in 1980s. It has been applied as an 代写留学生论文approach in order to relieve public finance burden, particularly in the area of public infrastructure, thus it play a major role in public service provision (Cheng & Wang 2009). It is important to take note that PPP is not new to China because it had already existed in different forms and sectors since the late 1970s building upon the “open door” reforms that was introduced by Deng Xiaping in 1978 (Adams & Young 2006).

Over the last decade, the subject of PPP has received much attention from different field of literature. One of the main causes was the development of the PFI by the Conservative Government in Britain after the enormous privatization program of the Thatcher years had wound down – consequently, now private capital would be attracted to fund the construction of public infrastructure facilities including roads, bridges, tunnels, schools, hospitals and prisons, with the constructing enterprises then contracted in order to maintain and operate them for stipulated period into the future – about 20 to 30 years. The private partners would recover their respective outlays and earn their financial rewards via fees to be charged for the use of these facilities over that period. In the end, the facilities would be reverted to the state (Wettenhall 2007).

In terms of public service provision, urban spaces are considered as important aspect. River offers many ecological services functions for cities including water supply, biological protection and landscape amusement, at the same time, it also help to promote urban development with its social, economical and environmental values. However, with the growing number of urban size, increasing disturbances to rivers including dam building, water resources exploitation, water allocation, meander cut-off, river branches building up, riverbank solidification and riverside vegetation destruction, disturb river flow regime and water cycle process, have resulted in degradation of river ecosystem, particularly the accumulative impact of water pollution, overfishing, etc. (Zhao & Yang 2007). In connection, property-led urban development has always been a major feature of Chinese cities since 1990’s, as a result; different efforts have been made in order to document policy and institutional changes in the country (Wu 2002).

One of the important movements of China was the transformation of urban waterway in Shanghai, the Suzhou Creek. This project helped to improve water quality and mitigate flood impact on Suzhou Creek, which focuses on improving the health and quality of life for 3 million people of Shanghai, at the same time, contribute to the economy, culture and social revitalization via urban renewal (CMD n.d.). This movement and strategy helped in order to improve the quality of living of the people, at the same time, help the overall economy of the city and the entire country. As have said, PPP had become very popular in financing projects in China, particularly those that are related with the social infrastructure, with this, it is vital to study the different factors that are related on how will PPP can help in order to finance rehabilitation of urban river space projects in China. It is vital to focus on the different aspects that are connected on the different advantages and disadvantages that can be faced and encountered upon application of PPP in project financing. Furthermore, it is also important to consider the different entities or shareholders that are involved in the entire process and transaction involved in PPP, at the same time, focus on the roles and responsibility of the government, particularly on the different rules and regulations being implemented in China.

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